SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 1-38143
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (713) 439-8600
|(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
|17021 Aldine Westfield Road|
|(Address of principal executive offices)||(Zip Code)|Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of each class||Trading Symbol||Name of each exchange on which registered|
|Class A Common Stock, $0.0001 Par Value per Share||BKR||New York Stock Exchange|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
|Large accelerated filer||☑||Accelerated filer||☐||Non-accelerated filer||☐||Smaller reporting company||☐|
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). YES ☐ NO ☑
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter (based on the closing price on June 30, 2020 reported by the New York Stock Exchange) was approximately $5,492,452,024.
As of February 19, 2021, the registrant had outstanding 728,963,146 shares of Class A Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share and 311,432,660 shares of Class B Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.
Baker Hughes Company
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | i
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Baker Hughes Company (Baker Hughes, the Company, we, us, or our) is an energy technology company with a diversified portfolio of technologies and services that span the energy and industrial value chain. We conduct business in more than 120 countries. The Company was formed in July 2017 as the result of a combination between Baker Hughes Incorporated (BHI) and the oil and gas business (GE O&G) of General Electric Company (GE) (the Transactions). As a result of the Transactions, substantially all of the business of GE O&G and of BHI was transferred to a subsidiary of the Company, Baker Hughes Holdings LLC (BHH LLC). In 2019, we accelerated our separation efforts from GE and in September 2019, GE sold down its stake in Baker Hughes to below 50%. In July 2020, GE launched a program to fully divest of its ownership in Baker Hughes over approximately three years. As of December 31, 2020, GE's economic interest in BHH LLC was 30.1%.
With the breadth of our portfolio, leading technology, and unique partnership models, we are positioned to deliver outcome-based solutions across the industry. By integrating health, safety & environment (HSE) into everything we do, we protect our people, our customers, and the environment. We believe in doing the right thing every time, and delivering the best quality and safest products, services, processes, solutions, and technologies in the industry.
The oil and gas macroeconomic environment continues to be dynamic. We believe the world’s reliance on hydrocarbons will not disappear, and oil and gas will continue to play necessary roles in meeting global energy demand. At the same time, the transition to new energy sources is accelerating. We believe the industry is going through a transformation that requires a change in how we work. Irrespective of commodity prices, our customers are focused on reducing both capital and operating expenditures. Our customers expect new models and solutions to deliver sustainable productivity improvements and leverage economies of scale, with a lower carbon footprint. That is why our strategy is focused on improving our core competitiveness and delivering higher-productivity solutions today, while positioning for the energy transition. Our strategy is based on three key pillars:
•Transform the core: We are transforming our current business to improve margins and cash flow, which we are achieving through portfolio rationalization, cost improvements, and new business models.
•Invest for growth: We are driving organic and inorganic growth in high potential segments where we have a strong position, including industrial power and processes, industrial asset management, non-metallics, and chemicals.
•Positioning for new energy frontiers: We are making strategic investments to drive the decarbonization of energy and industry, including hydrogen, geothermal, carbon capture, utilization and storage, and energy storage.
We believe we have an important role to play in society as an industry leader and partner. We view environmental, social, and governance (ESG) as a key lever to transform the performance of our company and our industry. In January 2019, we made a commitment to reduce CO2 equivalent (eq.) emissions from our operations by 50% by 2030, achieving net-zero CO2 eq. emissions by 2050. We are investing in our portfolio of advanced technologies to assist customers with reducing their carbon footprint.
We reported in our 2019 Corporate Social Responsibility report a 31% reduction in operating emissions since 2012 through a commitment to new technology and operational efficiencies. We will continue to employ a broad range of emissions reduction initiatives across manufacturing, supply chain, logistics, energy sourcing and generation. We have established a global additive manufacturing technology network with a mission to bring commercial-scale production closer to customers, reducing transportation impact and associated emissions.
We expect to benefit from the following:
•Scope and scale: We have global presence and a broad, diversified portfolio. Our products, services, and expertise serve the upstream, midstream/liquefied natural gas (LNG) and downstream sectors of the oil and
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 1
gas industry, as well as broader chemical and industrial segments. We deliver through our four product companies (also referred to as operating segments): Oilfield Services; Oilfield Equipment; Turbomachinery & Process Solutions; and Digital Solutions as discussed below under "Products and Services," and each are among the top four providers in their respective segments.
•Technology: Our culture is built on a heritage of innovation and invention in research and development, with complementary capabilities. Technology remains a differentiator for us, and a key enabler to drive the efficiency and productivity gains our customers need. We also have a range of technologies that support our customers' efforts to reduce their carbon footprint. We remain committed to investing in our products and services to maintain our leadership position across our offerings, including $595 million research & development spend in 2020.
•Digital capabilities: We expect to benefit from the emerging demand for artificial intelligence (AI) based solutions as part of our customers’ digital transformation initiatives. Launched in 2019, our partnership with C3.ai is enabling us to deliver AI that is faster, easier, and more scalable to drive outcomes for our customers. We are delivering existing technology to oil and gas customers and collaborating on new AI applications specific for oil and gas outcomes. We are also deploying these applications internally to improve operational efficiencies, specifically for inventory optimization. We are also leveraging advanced manufacturing techniques to transform our supply chain and design new parts and components that ultimately will lower costs and operational carbon emissions.
•Energy transition solutions: We are positioned to support our customers' efforts to reduce their carbon footprint with a range of emissions-reduction products and services. This includes more efficient power generation and compression technology that reduces carbon emissions. In 2020, we acquired Compact Carbon Capture, a technology development company specializing in carbon capture solutions, to advance industrial decarbonization. We also have a range of inspection and sensor technology that can monitor and help reduce flaring and emissions.
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
We are an energy technology company that has a diverse portfolio of equipment and service capabilities that span the energy and industrial value chain. Our four product companies, or operating segments, are organized based on the nature of our markets and customers and consist of similar products and services.
We sell to our customers through direct and indirect channels. Our primary sales channel is through our direct sales force, which has a strong regional focus with local teams close to the customer, who are able to draw support from centers of excellence in each of our major product lines. No single customer accounted for 10% or more of our revenue in the current year. Our products and services are sold in highly competitive markets and the competitive environment varies by product line. See discussion below by segment.
The Oilfield Services (OFS) segment designs and manufactures products and provides services for onshore and offshore oil & gas operations across the lifecycle of a well, including exploration, drilling, evaluation, completion, production, intervention, and abandonment.
OFS products and services include drill bits; drilling services, including directional drilling, measurement-while-drilling, and logging-while-drilling; drilling fluids; wireline services; completions, including tools, systems, and fluids; pressure pumping; well intervention; artificial lift systems; oilfield and industrial chemicals; and integrated well services. These offerings are enabled and enhanced by reservoir technical services and digital technologies that include modeling, remote capabilities, and automation.
OFS evaluation capabilities and drilling technologies provide greater understanding of the subsurface to enable smoother, faster drilling and precise wellbore placement, leading to improved recovery and project economics. With broad completions portfolio, drawing from a wide range of artificial lift technologies, production chemicals, and production optimization software, OFS can help maximize production while simultaneously lowering production costs. OFS also provides integrated well services to plan and execute projects ranging from well construction and production through well abandonment.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 2
OFS customers include the large integrated major and super-major oil and natural gas companies, U.S. and international independent oil and natural gas companies, and the national or state-owned oil companies as well as oilfield service companies.
OFS believes that its principal competitive factors in the industries and markets it serves are product and service quality, efficiency, reliability and availability, HSE standards, technical proficiency, and price. OFS products and services are sold in highly competitive markets, and revenue and earnings are affected by changes in commodity prices; fluctuations in levels of drilling, workover and completion activity in major markets; general economic conditions; foreign currency exchange fluctuations; and governmental regulations. While OFS may have contracts that include multiple well projects and that may extend over a period of time ranging from two to four years, its services and products are generally provided on a well-by-well basis. Most contracts cover pricing of the products and services but do not necessarily establish an obligation to use OFS products and services. OFS competitors include Schlumberger, Halliburton, and ChampionX.
The Oilfield Equipment (OFE) segment provides a broad portfolio of mission critical products and services utilized during drilling and over the life of a field. These products and services are required to facilitate the safe and reliable control and flow of hydrocarbons from the wellhead to the production facilities. The OFE portfolio has solutions for the subsea, offshore surface and onshore operating environments. OFE designs and manufactures subsea and surface drilling and production systems and provides a full range of services related to onshore and offshore drilling and production operations.
OFE products and services include subsea and surface drilling equipment, subsea production systems (SPS), flexible pipe systems for subsea flowlines, risers and onshore pipes, surface and subsea wellheads, surface pressure control solutions, subsea well intervention solutions and related service solutions. The OFE drilling product line offers blowout preventers, control systems, marine drilling risers, wellhead connectors, diverters, and related services for floaters, jack-ups, and land drilling rigs. OFE’s subsea portfolio includes subsea trees, control systems, manifolds, connection systems, wellheads, specialty connectors & pipes for all environments, installation and decommissioning solutions, and related services for Life of Field solutions and well intervention. OFE also provides advanced offshore flexible pipe products including risers, flowlines, fluid transfer lines and subsea jumpers, for floating production facilities across a range of operating environments. In addition, OFE offers a full range of onshore wellhead products, valves, actuators, related services, and also designs, manufactures and markets spoolable pipe systems including reinforced thermoplastic pipe (RTP) for exploration and production in the onshore upstream and midstream segments. OFE also offers a range of comprehensive, worldwide services for installation, technical support, well access through subsea intervention systems, operating resources and tools, offshore products and brownfield asset integrity solutions.
OFE customers are oil and gas operators, drilling contractors and engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractors seeking to undertake new subsea projects, mid-life upgrades and maintenance, well interventions and workover campaigns. OFE strives for a leadership position within the 20 Kpsi subsea drilling systems, large-bore gas fields, deepwater and ultra-deepwater oil and gas fields and fields with long tieback distances. Additionally, through Subsea Connect, OFE offers integrated solutions to our customers.
OFE believes that the principal competitive factors in the industries and markets it serves are product and service quality, reliability and on time delivery, health, safety and environmental standards, technical proficiency, availability of spare parts, and price. Its strong track record of innovation enables OFE to enter into long-term, performance-based service agreements with our customers. In the SPS product line, the primary competitors of OFE include Schlumberger, TechnipFMC, Aker Solutions ASA, and Dril-Quip Inc. In the offshore flexible pipe product line, main competitors include TechnipFMC and NOV. In the drilling product line, competitors include NOV and Schlumberger.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 3
Turbomachinery & Process Solutions
The Turbomachinery & Process Solutions (TPS) segment provides equipment and related services for mechanical-drive, compression and power-generation applications across the oil and gas industry and energy industry, the on-and-offshore, LNG, pipeline and gas storage, refining, petrochemical, distributed gas, flow and process control and industrial segments. TPS is a leader in designing, manufacturing, maintaining and upgrading rotating equipment across the entire oil and gas value chain.
TPS products and services include drivers, driven equipment, flow control, and turnkey solutions. Drivers are comprised of aero-derivative gas turbines, heavy-duty gas turbines, small- to medium-sized industrial gas turbines, steam turbines, and hot gas and turbo expanders. TPS’ driven equipment consists of generators, reciprocating, centrifugal, zero emission and subsea compressors. TPS’ flow portfolio includes pumps, valves, regulators, control systems, and other flow and process control technologies. As part of its turnkey solutions, TPS offers power generation and gas compression modules, waste heat/energy/pressure recovery, energy storage, modularized small and large liquefaction plants, carbon capture, and storage/use facilities. TPS also offers genuine spare parts, system upgrades, conversion solutions, digital advanced services and turnkey solutions to refurbish, rejuvenate and, improve the output from a single machine up to an entire plant.
TPS’ value proposition is founded on its turbomachinery and flow control technology, a unique competence to integrate gas turbines and compressors in the most critical natural gas applications, best-in-class manufacturing and testing capabilities, reliable maintenance and service operations, and innovative real-time diagnostics and control systems, enabling condition-based maintenance and increasing overall productivity, availability, efficiency, and reliability for oil and gas assets. TPS differentiates itself from competitors with its expertise in technology and project management, local presence and partnerships, as well as the deep industry know-how of its teams to provide fully integrated equipment and services solutions with state-of-art technology from design and manufacture through to operations.
TPS’ products enable customers to increase upstream oil and gas production, liquefy natural gas, compress gas for transport via pipelines, generate electricity, store gas and energy, refine oil and gas and produce petrochemicals, while minimizing both operational and environmental risks in the most extreme service conditions and enhancing overall efficiency. TPS products are also configurable for hydrogen and blended fuels. TPS’ customers are upstream, midstream and downstream, onshore and offshore, and small to large scale. Midstream and downstream customers include LNG plants, pipelines, storage facilities, refineries, and a wide range of industrial and EPC companies. As a supplier of turbomachinery equipment and solutions, TPS uses technology to help customers reduce their environmental impact by making their operations more efficient and enhancing their productivity, reducing emissions through flaring, venting and fuel combustion and introducing new technologies that improve their ability to reduce unwanted fugitive emissions.
TPS believes that the principal competitive factors in the industries and markets it serves are product range (or power range measured in megawatts) coverage, efficiency, product reliability and availability, service capabilities, references, emissions, and price. Our primary equipment competitors include Siemens Energy, Solar (a Caterpillar company), MAN Turbo, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Elliot Ebara. In the valves and pumps product line, competitors include Emerson, Flowserve, Metso and Sulzer. Our aftermarket equipment product line competes with independent service providers such as Masaood John Brown, EthosEnergy, Sulzer, MTU, and Chromalloy.
The Digital Solutions segment combines sophisticated hardware technologies with enterprise-class software products and analytics to connect industrial assets, providing customers with the data, safety and security needed to reliably and efficiently improve operations.
DS products and services include condition monitoring, industrial controls, non-destructive technologies, measurement, sensing, and pipeline solutions. Condition monitoring technologies include the Bently Nevada® and System 1® brands, providing rack-based vibration monitoring equipment and sensors primarily for power generation and oil and gas operations. The DS Waygate Technologies product line includes non-destructive testing technology, software, and services, including industrial radiography, ultrasonic sensors, testing machines and gauges, NDT film, and remote visual inspection.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 4
The DS Process and Pipeline Services product line (PPS) provides pre-commissioning and maintenance services to improve throughput and asset integrity for process facilities and pipelines while achieving the highest returns possible. The PPS product line also provides inline inspection solutions to support pipeline integrity and includes nitrogen, bolting, torqueing and leak detection services, as well as the world’s largest fleet of air compressors to dry pipelines after hydrotesting. The DS Panametrics, Druck, and Reuter-Stokes product lines provide instrumentation and sensor-based technologies to better detect and analyze pressure, flow, gas, moisture, radiation, and related conditions. The DS Nexus Controls product line provides comprehensive, scalable industrial controls systems, safety systems (SIL), hardware, software cybersecurity solutions and services.
DS helps companies monitor and optimize industrial assets while mitigating risk and boosting safety, by providing performance management, and condition and asset health monitoring. It also provides customers the technical capabilities to drive enterprise wide digital transformation of business processes and to focus on better production outcomes along the entire oil & gas value chain and adjacent industries, using sensors, services and inspections to connect industrial assets to the Industrial Internet. The DS software business is built to handle data at an industrial scale, giving customers the power to innovate, and make faster, more confident decisions to maximize performance.
DS believes that the principal competitive factors in the industries and markets it serves are superior product technology, service, quality, and reliability. DS competes across a wide range of industries, including oil & gas, power generation, aerospace, and light and heavy industrials. The products and services are sold in a diversified, fragmented arena with a broad range of competitors. Although no single company competes directly with DS across all its product lines, various companies compete in one or more products. Competitors include Emerson, Honeywell Process Solutions, Olympus, Schneider Electric, and Siemens.
We conduct our business under various types of contracts in the upstream, midstream, and downstream segments, including fixed-fee or turnkey contracts, transactional agreements for products and services, and long-term aftermarket service agreements.
We enjoy stable relationships with many of our customers based on long-term project contracts and master service agreements. Several of those contracts require us to commit to a fixed price based on the customer’s technical specifications with little or no legal relief available due to changes in circumstances, such as changes in local laws, or industry or geopolitical events. In some cases, failure to deliver products or perform services within contractual commitments may lead to liquidated damages claims. We seek to mitigate these exposures through close collaboration with our customers.
We strive to negotiate the terms of our customer contracts consistent with what we consider to be industry best practices. Our customers typically indemnify us for certain claims arising from: the injury or death of their employees and often their contractors; the loss of or damage to their facility and equipment, and often that of their contractors; pollution originating from their equipment or facility; and all liabilities related to the well and subsurface operations, including loss or damage to the well or reservoir, loss of well control, fire, explosion, or any uncontrolled flow of oil or gas. Conversely, we typically indemnify our customers for certain claims arising from: the injury or death of our employees and sometimes that of our subcontractors; the loss of or damage to our equipment; and pollution originating from our equipment above the surface of the earth while under our control. Where the above indemnities do not apply or are not consistent with industry best practices, we typically provide a capped indemnity for damages caused to the customer by our negligence, and include an overall limitation of liability clause. It is also our general practice to include a limitation of liability for consequential loss, including loss of profits and loss of revenue, in all customer contracts.
Our indemnity structure may not protect us in every case. Certain U.S. states have enacted oil and natural gas specific anti-indemnity statutes that can void the allocation of liability agreed to in a contract. State law, laws in countries outside the U.S., public policy, or the negotiated terms of a customer contract may also limit indemnity obligations in the event of the gross negligence or willful misconduct. We sometimes contract with customers that are not the end user of our products. It is our practice to seek to obtain an indemnity from our customer for any end-user claims, but this is not always possible. Similarly, government agencies and other third parties, including in some cases other contractors of our customers, may make claims in respect of which we are not indemnified and
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 5
for which responsibility is assessed proportionate to fault. We have an established process to review any risk deviations from our standard contracting practices.
The Company maintains a commercial general liability insurance policy program that covers against certain operating hazards, including product liability claims and personal injury claims, as well as certain limited environmental pollution claims for damage to a third party or its property arising out of contact with pollution for which the Company is liable; however, clean up and well control costs are not covered by such program. All of the insurance policies purchased by the Company are subject to deductible and/or self-insured retention amounts for which we are responsible for payment, specific terms, conditions, limitations, and exclusions. There can be no assurance that the nature and amount of Company insurance will be sufficient to fully indemnify us against liabilities related to our business.
ORDERS AND REMAINING PERFORMANCE OBLIGATIONS
Remaining performance obligations (RPO), a defined term under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), are unfilled customer orders for products and product services excluding any purchase order that provides the customer with the ability to cancel or terminate without incurring a substantive penalty, even if the likelihood of cancellation is remote based on historical experience. For product services, an amount is included for the expected life of the contract.
We recognized orders of $20.7 billion, $27.0 billion and $23.9 billion in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the remaining performance obligations totaled $23.4 billion, $22.9 billion and $21.0 billion, respectively.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
We engage in research and development activities directed primarily toward the development of new products, services, technology, and other solutions, as well as the improvement of existing products, services and the design of specialized products to meet specific customer needs. We continue to invest across all operating segments in products to enhance safety, develop capability, improve performance, and reduce costs aligned with our operational strategy. Through our Enterprise Technology Centers we also invest heavily in fundamental technologies such as materials, additive manufacturing, artificial intelligence/machine learning and other digital technologies such as computer vision, data science and edge computing.
In OFS, we invested in a range of formation evaluation capabilities as well as drilling, completions, and production hardware. In OFE, the recent focus has been to expand capability into deeper water, longer offsets and at higher pressures as well as modular designs that allow for simpler and more digitally integrated subsea systems. In TPS, we continue to invest in the energy transition with our latest generation of gas turbines for energy efficiency and reduced carbon footprint such as our LM9000TM and Nova LTTM products, as well as our process and safety valve business bringing new digital applications including analytics to our customers. DS continues to invest in advanced digital solutions designed to improve the efficiency, reliability, and safety of oil & gas, aerospace, energy, and broader industrial production and operations. This includes our new Orbit 60 Bently Nevada product for critical asset monitoring used extensively in turbine systems – wind, hydro, gas-turbines, etc.
Our technology, brands and other intellectual property (IP) rights are important elements of our business. We rely on patent, trademark, copyright, and trade secret laws, as well as non-disclosure and employee invention assignment agreements to protect our intellectual property rights. Many patents and patent applications comprise the Baker Hughes portfolio and are owned by us. Other patents and patent applications applicable to our products and services are licensed to us by GE and, in some cases, third parties. We do not consider any individual patent to be material to our business operations.
In connection with the Master Agreement Framework, GE entered into an amended and restated IP cross-license agreement (the IP Cross-License Agreement) with BHH LLC. GE agreed to perpetually license to BHH LLC the right to use certain intellectual property owned or controlled by GE pursuant to the terms of the IP Cross-License Agreement. BHH LLC in return, also agreed to perpetually license to GE the right to use certain intellectual property rights owned or controlled by BHH LLC pursuant to the terms of the IP Cross-License
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 6
Agreement. This IP Cross-License Agreement allows both parties to have continued and permanent rights to commercially utilize certain intellectual property of the other pursuant to the terms of the agreement.
We follow a policy of seeking patent and trademark protection in numerous countries and regions throughout the world for products and methods that appear to have commercial significance. We believe that maintenance, protection and enforcement of our patents, trademarks, and related intellectual property rights is central to the conduct of our business, and aggressively pursue protection of our intellectual property rights against infringement, misappropriation or other violation worldwide as we deem appropriate to protect our business. Additionally, we consider the quality and timely delivery of our products, the service we provide to our customers, and the technical knowledge and skills of our personnel to be other important components of the portfolio of capabilities and assets supporting our ability to compete.
Our operations can be affected by seasonal events, which can temporarily affect the delivery and performance of our products and services, and our customers' budgetary cycles. Examples of seasonal events that can impact our business are set forth below:
•Adverse weather conditions, such as hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, may interrupt or curtail our coastal and offshore drilling, or our customers’ operations, cause supply disruptions and result in a loss of revenue and damage to our equipment and facilities, which may or may not be insured. Other adverse weather conditions could include extreme heat in the Middle East during the summer months which may impact our operations or our customers' operations.
•The severity and duration of both the summer and the winter in North America can have a significant impact on activity levels. In Canada, the timing and duration of the spring thaw directly affects activity levels, which reach seasonal lows during the second quarter and build through the third and fourth quarters to a seasonal high in the first quarter.
•Severe weather during the winter months normally results in reduced activity levels in the North Sea and Russia generally in the first quarter and may interrupt or curtail our operations, or our customers’ operations, in those areas and result in a loss of revenue.
•Many of our international oilfield customers may increase activity for certain products and services in the fourth quarter as they seek to fully utilize their annual budgets.
•Our process & pipeline business in the DS segment typically experiences lower sales during the first and fourth quarters of the year due to the Northern Hemisphere winter.
•Our broader DS and TPS businesses typically experience higher customer activity as a result of spending patterns in the second half of the year.
We purchase various raw materials and component parts for use in manufacturing our products and delivering our services. The principal raw materials we use include steel alloys, chromium, nickel, titanium, barite, beryllium, copper, lead, tungsten carbide, synthetic and natural diamonds, gels, sand and other proppants, printed circuit boards and other electronic components, and hydrocarbon-based chemical feed stocks. Raw materials that are essential to our business are normally readily available from multiple sources, but may be subject to price volatility. Market conditions can trigger constraints in the supply of certain raw materials, and we are always seeking ways to ensure the availability and manage the cost of raw materials. Our procurement department uses its size and buying power to enhance its access to key materials at competitive prices.
In addition to raw materials and component parts, we also use the products and services of metal fabricators, machine shops, foundries, forge shops, assembly operations, contract manufacturers, logistics providers, packagers, indirect material providers, and others in order to produce and deliver products to customers. These materials and services are generally available from multiple sources.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 7
As an energy technology company with operations around the world, we believe that a diverse workforce is critical to our success, and we aim to attract the best and most diverse talent to support the energy transition. We strive to be an inclusive and safe workplace, with opportunities for our employees to grow and develop in their careers, supported by competitive compensation, benefits and health and wellness programs, and by programs that build connections between our employees and their communities.
As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 55,000 employees. More than 42,000 of our employees work outside the U.S. in 88 different countries. This diversity of global perspectives makes our company stronger, more resilient and more responsive to our global customers.
Diversity and Inclusion
We believe that a diverse workforce is critical to our success, and we continue to focus on the hiring, retention and advancement of underrepresented populations. Our recent efforts have been focused in two areas: expanding our efforts to recruit and hire diverse talent and inspiring an inclusive and diverse culture through programs such as employee resource groups.
Recruitment: We have enacted a number of initiatives to support our global goal of increasing the number of diverse employees. We have conducted training on unconscious bias and launched pilot projects on blind resumes and debiasing job descriptions, interview templates, and assessments as well as expanded our talent acquisition focus to include executive search services.
Employee Resource Groups (ERG): ERGs consist of employees who have joined together based on shared interests, characteristics, or life experiences. These groups can have a powerful influence on building awareness, change, and community, give a voice to groups who may otherwise be unheard, and help elevate conversation and awareness around key issues. They take an active role in forming Company priorities, employee engagement activities, and engaging in community service in the communities where we operate. This effort has helped our diversity and inclusion focus and fostered closer connections between employees in communities around the world.
Compensation and Benefits
We are committed to supporting our employees’ and their families’ wellbeing by offering flexible and competitive benefits. We periodically reassess our total compensation and benefits for many of our employees through benchmarking with our industry and local market comparison groups. A majority of our benefits are tailored by location to meet the specific needs of our people, their families, and their communities. Healthcare plans and life insurance are a core benefit of the Company and are provided in all countries globally. Baker Hughes offers various leaves of absence for certain quality-of-life needs, including family care and personal leaves. To assist and support new parents with balancing work and family matters, in most countries in which Baker Hughes operates, the Company provides paid leave to all employees (females and males) for the birth or adoption of a child. This benefit typically exceeds local requirements.
Continuous learning is a key priority at Baker Hughes. We empower our employees to follow their passion for personal knowledge and domain expertise to develop the skills needed for professional and personal growth. In 2020, 6,155 employees participated in leadership training courses. We offer more than 600 unique HSE courses including foundational training for all employees, workplace and job-specific training, and human performance leadership training for managers.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 8
Health and Safety
Prioritizing the health and safety of our employees and their families is critical. Our Perfect HSE Day remains the cornerstone of our HSE efforts. We achieved 200 Perfect HSE days in 2020, a 24% increase from the prior year.
Our commitment to HSE goes beyond safety alone. Occupational health and wellness is a key competency managed within our HSE center of excellence. The importance of physical health, ergonomics, preventative health care, and mental wellness cannot be overstated in promoting a healthy, engaged, and productive workplace. We work with our health benefit providers and internal teams to offer employees health and wellness programs, telemedicine access, health screenings, immunizations, fitness reimbursements, and virtual wellness tools.
During 2020, the mental health of our employees became an even greater focus. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented significant changes that we determined were in the best interest of our employees, as well as the communities in which we operate, and which comply with government regulations. This includes having the vast majority of our employees work from home, while implementing additional safety measures for employees continuing critical on-site work.
Our Employee Assistance Program (EAP) helps employees navigate daily life to managing remote work, coping with major life events or even dealing with a global pandemic. The EAP gives employees and their family members direct access to professional coaches for in-the-moment counseling or referrals to community experts and extended care providers.
The Baker Hughes Foundation has been a steward of charitable resources for meaningful community impact. The Foundation seeks to advance environmental quality, education, health, safety, and wellness around the world by supporting organizations with shared values, demonstrated leadership, evidence of impact, financial soundness, and the capacity to implement initiatives and evaluate their success.
Board Oversight of Human Capital Management
From a governance perspective, our Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors provides oversight of our policies, programs, and initiatives focusing on workforce inclusion and diversity as well as executive compensation and benefits. Our Governance & Corporate Responsibility Committee provides oversight of employee health and safety matters.
We are committed to the health and safety of people, protection of the environment and compliance with environmental laws, regulations and our policies. Our past and present operations include activities that are subject to extensive domestic (including U.S. federal, state and local) and international regulations with regard to air, land and water quality and other environmental matters. Regulations continue to evolve, and changes in standards of enforcement of existing regulations, as well as the enactment of new legislation, may require us and our customers to modify, supplement or replace equipment or facilities or to change or discontinue present methods of operation. Our environmental compliance expenditures and our capital costs for environmental control equipment may change accordingly.
We recognize that environmental challenges including climate change warrant meaningful action. In 2019, we announced our commitment to reduce our carbon equivalent emissions 50% by 2030 and achieve carbon equivalent net zero emissions by 2050. This goal encompasses emissions from our direct operations (Scope 1 and 2 emissions) as compared to our baseline year of 2012 and was set to align with the Paris Accord and the specific recommendations of the United Nations (UN) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5oC. We have proactively worked to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions over the last decade and continue efforts to reduce our overall environmental footprint by using materials wisely and preserving land, water, and air quality. Our sustainability commitments include our formal participation in the UN Global
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 9
Compact, which commenced in 2019 and requires annual communication of progress. The UN Global Compact requires commitment to the UN Sustainable Development Goals and ten principles including a precautionary approach to environmental challenges, initiatives to promote a greater sense of environmental responsibility and the development of environmentally friendly technologies.
While we seek to embed and verify sound environmental practices throughout our business, we are, and may in the future be, involved in voluntary remediation projects at current and former properties, typically related to historical operations. On rare occasions, our remediation activities are conducted as specified by a government agency-issued consent decree or agreed order. Remediation costs at these properties are accrued using currently available facts, existing environmental permits, technology and presently enacted laws and regulations. For sites where we are primarily responsible for the remediation, our cost estimates are developed based on internal evaluations and are not discounted. We record accruals when it is probable that we will be obligated to pay amounts for environmental site evaluation, remediation or related activities, and such amounts can be reasonably estimated. Accruals are recorded even if significant uncertainties exist over the ultimate cost of the remediation. Ongoing environmental compliance costs, such as obtaining environmental permits, installation and maintenance of pollution control equipment and waste disposal, are expensed as incurred.
The U.S. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (known as "Superfund") imposes liability for the release of a "hazardous substance" into the environment. Superfund liability is imposed without regard to fault, even if the waste disposal was in compliance with laws and regulations. We have been identified as a potentially responsible party (PRP) at various Superfund sites, and we accrue our share, if known, of the estimated remediation costs for the site. PRPs in Superfund actions have joint and several liability and may be required to pay more than their proportional share of such costs.
In some cases, it is not possible to quantify our ultimate exposure because the projects are either in the investigative or early remediation stage, or superfund allocation information is not yet available. Based upon current information, we believe that our overall compliance with environmental regulations, including remediation obligations, environmental compliance costs and capital expenditures for environmental control equipment, will not have a material adverse effect on our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position because we have either established adequate reserves or our compliance cost, based on available information, is not expected to be material to our consolidated financial statements. Our total accrual for environmental remediation was $78 million and $82 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We continue to focus on reducing future environmental liabilities by maintaining appropriate Company standards and by improving our environmental assurance programs.
Other Regulatory Matters
We are subject to regulation by various U.S. federal regulatory agencies and by the applicable regulatory authorities in countries in which our products are manufactured and sold. Such regulations principally relate to the ingredients, classification, labeling, manufacturing, packaging, transportation, advertising and marketing of our products. Additionally, as a U.S. entity operating through subsidiaries in non-U.S. jurisdictions, we are subject to foreign exchange control, transfer pricing and customs laws that regulate the import and export of goods as well as the flow of funds between us and our subsidiaries. In particular, the shipment of goods, services and technology across international borders subjects us to extensive trade laws and regulations. Our import activities are governed by the unique customs laws and regulations in each of the countries where we operate. Pursuant to their laws and regulations, governments may impose economic sanctions against certain countries, persons and entities that may restrict or prohibit transactions involving such countries, persons and entities, which may limit or prevent our conduct of business in certain jurisdictions. We are also required to be in compliance with transfer pricing, securities laws and other statutes and regulations, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA") and other countries’ anti-corruption and anti-bribery regimes.
In addition, we are subject to laws relating to data privacy and security and consumer credit, protection and fraud. An increasing number of governments worldwide have established laws and regulations, and industry groups also have promoted various standards, regarding data privacy and security, including with respect to the protection and processing of personal data. The legal and regulatory environment related to data privacy and security is increasingly rigorous, with new and constantly changing requirements applicable to our business, and enforcement practices are likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. We are also subject to labor and employment laws, including regulations established by the U.S. Department of Labor and other local regulatory agencies, which
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 10
sets laws governing working conditions, paid leave, workplace safety, wage and hour standards, and hiring and employment practices.
While there are no current regulatory matters that we expect to be material to our results of operations, financial position, or cash flows, there can be no assurances that existing or future environmental laws and other laws, regulations and standards applicable to our operations or products will not lead to a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION FOR STOCKHOLDERS
Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act), are made available free of charge on our internet website at www.bakerhughes.com as soon as reasonably practicable after these reports have been electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. In addition, our Corporate Social Responsibility reports are available on the Company section of our website at www.bakerhughes.com. Information contained on or connected to our website is not incorporated by reference into this annual report on Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this annual report or any other filing we make with the SEC.
We have a Code of Conduct to provide guidance to our directors, officers, and employees on matters of business conduct and ethics, including compliance standards and procedures. We also require our principal executive officer, principal financial officer and principal accounting officer to sign a Code of Ethical Conduct Certification annually.
The Code of Conduct, referred to as Our Way: The Baker Hughes Code of Conduct, and the Code of Ethical Conduct Certifications are available on the Investor section of our website at www.bakerhughes.com. We will disclose on a current report on Form 8-K or on our website information about any amendment or waiver of these codes for our executive officers and directors. Waiver information disclosed on our website will remain on the website for at least 12 months after the initial disclosure of a waiver. Our Governance Principles and the charters of our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, Conflicts Committee and Governance and Corporate Responsibility Committee of our Board of Directors are also available on the Investor section of our website at www.bakerhughes.com. In addition, a copy of the Code of Conduct, Code of Ethical Conduct Certifications, Governance Principles, and the charters of the committees referenced above are available in print at no cost to any stockholder who requests them.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 11
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF BAKER HUGHES COMPANY
The following table shows, as of February 25, 2021, the name of each of our executive officers, together with his or her age and office presently or previously held. There are no family relationships among our executive officers.
|Name||Age||Position and Background|
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer
Lorenzo Simonelli has been the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Company since October 2017, and a Director, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company since July 2017. Prior to joining the Company in July 2017, Mr. Simonelli was Senior Vice President, GE and President and Chief Executive Officer, GE Oil & Gas from October 2013 to July 2017. Before joining GE Oil & Gas, he was the President and Chief Executive Officer of GE Transportation from July 2008 to October 2013. Mr. Simonelli joined GE in 1994 and held various finance and leadership roles from 1994 to 2008.
Chief Financial Officer
Brian Worrell is the Chief Financial Officer of the Company. Prior to joining the Company in July 2017, he served as Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of GE Oil & Gas from January 2014 to July 2017. He previously held the position of Vice President, Financial Planning & Analysis for GE from 2010 to January 2014 and Vice President Corporate Audit Staff for GE from 2006 to 2010.
|Maria Claudia Borras||52|
Executive Vice President, Oilfield Services
Maria Claudia Borras is the Executive Vice President, Oilfield Services of the Company. Prior to joining the Company in July 2017, she served as the Chief Commercial Officer of GE Oil & Gas from January 2015 to July 2017. Prior to joining GE Oil & Gas, she held various leadership positions at Baker Hughes Incorporated including President, Latin America from October 2013 to December 2014, President, Europe Region from August 2011 to October 2013, Vice President, Global Marketing from May 2009 to July 2011 and other leadership roles at Baker Hughes Incorporated from 1994 to April 2009.
Senior Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer
Kurt Camilleri is the Senior Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer of the Company. Prior to joining the Company in July 2017, he served as the Global Controller for GE Oil & Gas from July 2013 to July 2017. Mr. Camilleri served as the Global Controller for GE Transportation from January 2013 to June 2013 and the Controller for Europe and Eastern and African Growth Markets for GE Healthcare from 2010 to January 2013. He began his career in 1996 with Pricewaterhouse in London, which subsequently became PricewaterhouseCoopers.
Executive Vice President, Turbomachinery and Process Solutions
Rod Christie is the Executive Vice President, Turbomachinery & Process Solutions of the Company. Prior to joining the Company in July 2017, he served as the Chief Executive Officer of Turbomachinery & Process Solutions at GE Oil & Gas from January 2016 to July 2017. He served as the Chief Executive Officer of GE Oil & Gas’ Subsea Systems & Drilling Business from August 2011 to 2016 and held various other leadership positions within GE between 1999 to 2011.
Executive Vice President, Strategy & Business Development
Michele Fiorentino is the Executive Vice President, Strategy & Business Development of the Company. Prior to joining the Company, he served as Chief Investment Officer and Strategy Leader at ADNOC from April 2017 to May 2020. Prior to that, he held senior corporate strategy, finance, and sales roles at BP from September 1996 to March 2017.
Chief Legal Officer
Regina Jones is the Chief Legal Officer of the Company. Prior to joining the Company, she served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary for Delek U.S. Holdings, Inc and Delek Logistics Partners LP from May 2018 to April 2020. Prior to that, she worked at Schlumberger as General Counsel for the Land Rigs product line from June 2016 to May 2018 and in various international legal roles in France, Malaysia and the United States from 2005 to 2018.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 12
|Name||Age||Position and Background|
Executive Vice President, Digital Solutions
Rami Qasem is the Executive Vice President, Digital Solutions of the Company. Prior to this role, he served as President of the Middle East, North Africa, Turkey and India (MENATI) region for the Company from July 2017 through January 2019. Prior to joining the Company, he served as President of the MENATI region for GE Oil & Gas from 2011 to 2017 and various other leadership roles within GE from 1997 to 2011.
Executive Vice President, Oilfield Equipment
Neil Saunders is the Executive Vice President, Oilfield Equipment of the Company. Prior to joining the Company in July 2017, he served as the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Subsea Systems & Drilling business at GE Oil & Gas from July 2016 to July 2017 and the Senior Vice President for Subsea Production Systems from August 2011 to July 2016. He served in various leadership roles within GE Oil & Gas from 2007 to August 2011.
Executive Vice President, Regions, Alliances & Enterprise Sales
Uwem Ukpong is the Executive Vice President, Regions, Alliances & Enterprise Sales of the Company. Prior to this role, he served as the Executive Vice President, Global Operations from January 2018 to April 2020 and Chief Integration Officer of the Company from July 2017 to January 2018. He served as Vice President, Baker Hughes Integration for GE Oil & Gas from October 2016 to July 2017 and President and CEO of the GE Oil & Gas Surface Business from January 2016 to October 2016. He held various technical and leadership roles at Schlumberger from 1993 to 2015.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
An investment in our common stock involves various risks. When considering an investment in the Company, one should carefully consider all of the risk factors described below, as well as other information included and incorporated by reference in this annual report. There may be additional risks, uncertainties and matters not listed below, that we are unaware of, or that we currently consider immaterial. Any of these may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and, thus, the value of an investment in the Company.
We operate in a highly competitive environment, which may adversely affect our ability to succeed.
We operate in a highly competitive environment for marketing oilfield products and services and securing equipment. Our ability to continually provide competitive products and services can impact our ability to defend, maintain or increase prices for our products and services, maintain market share, and negotiate acceptable contract terms with our customers. In order to be competitive, we must provide new and differentiating technologies, reliable products and services that perform as expected and that create value for our customers.
In addition, our investments in new technologies, equipment, and facilities may not provide competitive returns. Our ability to defend, maintain or increase prices for our products and services is in part dependent on the industry’s capacity relative to customer demand, and on our ability to differentiate the value delivered by our products and services from our competitors’ products and services. Managing development of competitive technology and new product introductions on a forecasted schedule and at a forecasted cost can impact our financial results. If we are unable to continue to develop and produce competitive technology or deliver it to our clients in a timely and cost-competitive manner in various markets in which we operate, or if competing technology accelerates the obsolescence of any of our products or services, any competitive advantage that we may hold, and in turn, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. We are also developing artificial intelligence products and services with a third party. There are no assurances that we will be able to successfully develop an artificial intelligence platform that will effectively address the artificial intelligence related needs of our customers. In addition, the agreement with the third party is subject to term limitations and there are no assurances that a future agreement, if any, will have the same terms as the current agreement.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 13
Our business could be adversely affected by the widespread outbreak of a disease or virus. The current global spread of the COVID-19 virus has and may continue to materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition for an indeterminate amount of time.
The markets have experienced a decline in oil prices in response to a decline in oil demand due to the economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. As demand for our products and services declines, the utilization of our assets and the prices we are able to charge our customers for our products and services could decline. The continued spread of COVID-19 or a similar pandemic could result in further instability in the markets and decreases in commodity prices resulting in further adverse impacts on our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
In addition, the continued spread of the COVID-19 virus, or similar pandemics, and the continuation of the measures to try to contain the virus or similar viruses, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter in place orders, and shutdowns, may further impact our workforce and operations, the operations of our customers, and those of our vendors and suppliers. Also, if a significant number of our employees were to contract the virus or be quarantined, the Company may not be able to complete key or critical tasks, not limited to, but including key financial, reporting, and operational controls.
There is considerable uncertainty regarding such measures and potential future measures, which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
Our restructuring activities may not achieve the results we expect, and those activities could increase, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
The restructuring charges we have taken and impairment calculations we have performed are based on current market conditions, including the trading price of our common shares. There is no assurance that our restructuring plans will be successful and achieve the expected results. In addition, continued deterioration of market conditions, whether due to the continued spread of COVID-19 or other events could result in further restructuring costs and impairments.
Failure to effectively and timely execute our energy transition strategy could have an adverse effect on the demand for our technologies and services.
Our future success may depend upon our ability to effectively execute on our energy transition strategy. Our strategy depends on our ability to develop additional technologies and work with our customers and partners to advance new energy solutions such as carbon capture use and storage, hydrogen energy, geothermal, and other integrated solutions. If the energy transition landscape changes faster than anticipated or faster than we can transition or if we fail to execute our energy transition strategy as planned, demand for our technologies and services could be adversely effected.
The high cost or unavailability of raw materials, equipment, and supplies essential to our business could adversely affect our ability to execute our operations on a timely basis.
Our manufacturing operations are dependent on having sufficient raw materials, component parts and manufacturing capacity available to meet our manufacturing plans at a reasonable cost while minimizing inventories. Our ability to effectively manage our manufacturing operations and meet these goals can have an impact on our business, including our ability to meet our manufacturing plans and revenue goals, control costs, and avoid shortages or over-supply of raw materials and component parts.
If we are unable to attract and retain qualified personnel, we may not be able to execute our business strategy effectively and our operations could be adversely affected.
Our future success depends on our ability to recruit, train, and retain qualified personnel. People are a key resource to developing, manufacturing, and delivering our products and providing technical services to our customers around the world. A competent, well-trained, highly skilled, motivated, and diverse workforce has a positive impact on our ability to attract and retain business. Periods of rapid growth present a challenge to us and our industry to recruit, train, and retain our employees, while also managing the impact of wage inflation and the limited available qualified labor in the markets where we operate.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 14
Our business could be impacted by geopolitical and terrorism threats in countries where we or our customers do business and our business operations may be impacted by civil unrest and/or government expropriations.
Geopolitical and terrorism risks continue to grow in a number of key countries where we currently or may in the future do business. Geopolitical and terrorism risks could lead to, among other things, a loss of our investment in the country, impairment of the safety of our employees, and impairment of our or our customers’ ability to conduct operations.
In addition to other geopolitical and terrorism risks, civil unrest continues to grow in a number of key countries where we do business. Our ability to conduct business operations may be impacted by that civil unrest and our assets in these countries may also be subject to expropriation by governments or other parties involved in civil unrest.
Control of oil and natural gas reserves by state-owned oil companies may impact the demand for our services and products and create additional risks in our operations.
Much of the world’s oil and natural gas reserves are controlled by state-owned oil companies. State-owned oil companies may require their contractors to meet local content requirements or other local standards, such as conducting our operations through joint ventures with local partners that could be difficult or undesirable for us to meet. The failure to meet the local content requirements and other local standards may adversely impact our operations in those countries. In addition, our ability to work with state-owned oil companies is subject to our ability to negotiate and agree upon acceptable contract terms.
Our operations involve a variety of operating hazards and risks that could cause losses.
The products that we manufacture and the services that we provide are complex, and the failure of our equipment to operate properly or to meet specifications may greatly increase our customers’ costs. In addition, many of these products are used in inherently hazardous industries, such as the offshore oilfield business. These hazards include blowouts, explosions, nuclear-related events, fires, collisions, capsizings, and severe weather conditions. We may incur substantial liabilities or losses as a result of these hazards. Our insurance and contractual indemnity protection may not be sufficient or effective to protect us under all circumstances or against all risks. The occurrence of a significant event, against which we were not fully insured or indemnified or the failure of a customer to meet its indemnification obligations to us, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Seasonal and weather conditions could adversely affect demand for our services and operations.
Variation from normal weather patterns, such as cooler or warmer summers and winters, can have a significant impact on demand for our services and operations. Adverse weather conditions, such as hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, may interrupt or curtail our operations, or our customers’ operations, cause supply disruptions and result in a loss of revenue and damage to our equipment and facilities, which may or may not be insured. For example, extreme winter conditions in Canada, Russia, or the North Sea may interrupt or curtail our operations, or our customers’ operations, in those areas and result in a loss of revenue.
CREDIT AND CUSTOMER CONTRACTING RISKS
Providing services on an integrated or turnkey basis could require us to assume additional risks. Some of our customers require bids in the form of fixed pricing contracts.
We may enter into integrated contracts or turnkey contracts with our customers and we may choose to provide services outside our core business. Providing services on an integrated or turnkey basis may subject us to additional risks, such as costs associated with unexpected delays or difficulties in drilling or completion operations and risks associated with subcontracting arrangements.
Some of our customers require bids for contracts in the form of fixed pricing contracts that may require us to provide integrated project management services outside our normal discrete business and to act as project
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 15
managers, as well as service providers, and may require us to assume additional risks associated with cost over-runs.
We may not be able to satisfy technical requirements, testing requirements or other specifications required under our service contracts and equipment purchase agreements.
Our products are used in deepwater and other harsh environments and severe service applications. Our contracts with customers and customer requests for bids typically set forth detailed specifications or technical requirements for our products and services, which may also include extensive testing requirements. We anticipate that such testing requirements will become more common in our contracts. In addition, recent scrutiny of the offshore drilling industry has resulted in more stringent technical specifications for our products and more comprehensive testing requirements for our products to ensure compliance with such specifications. We cannot provide assurance that our products will be able to satisfy the specifications or that we will be able to perform the full-scale testing necessary to prove that the product specifications are satisfied in future contract bids or under existing contracts, or that the costs of modifications to our products to satisfy the specifications and testing will not adversely affect our results of operations.
We sometimes enter into consortium or similar arrangements for certain projects, which could impose additional costs and obligations on us.
We sometimes enter into consortium or similar arrangements for certain projects. Under such arrangements, each party is responsible for performing a certain scope of work within the total scope of the contracted work, and the obligations expire when all contractual obligations are completed. The failure or inability, financially or otherwise, of any of the parties to perform their obligations could impose additional costs and obligations on us. These factors could result in unanticipated costs to complete the project, liquidated damages or contract disputes.
Our contracts may be terminated early in certain circumstances.
Our contracts with clients generally may be terminated by the client for convenience, default, or extended force majeure (which could include inability to perform due to COVID-19). Termination for convenience will typically require the payment of an early termination fee by the client, but the early termination fee may not fully compensate us for the loss of the contract. Termination by the client for default or extended force majeure due to events outside of our control generally will not require the client to pay an early termination fee.
Our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows could be materially adversely affected if our clients terminate some of our contracts and we are unable to secure new contracts on a timely basis and on substantially similar terms, if payments due under our contracts are suspended for an extended period of time, or if a number of our contracts are renegotiated. Our Remaining Performance Obligation is comprised of unfilled customer orders for products and product services (expected life of contract sales for product services). The actual amount and timing of revenues earned may be substantially different than the reported RPO. The total dollar amount of the Company’s RPO as of December 31, 2020 was $23.4 billion.
The credit risks of having a concentrated customer base in the energy industry could result in losses.
Having a concentration of customers in the energy industry may impact our overall exposure to credit risk as our customers may be similarly affected by prolonged changes in economic and industry conditions. Some of our customers may experience extreme financial distress as a result of falling commodity prices and may be forced to seek protection under applicable bankruptcy laws, which may affect our ability to recover any amounts due from such customers. Furthermore, countries that rely heavily upon income from hydrocarbon exports have been and may in the future be negatively and significantly affected by a drop in oil prices, which could affect our ability to collect from our customers in these countries, particularly national oil companies. Laws in some jurisdictions in which we will operate could make collection difficult or time consuming. We will perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers and do not expect to require collateral in support of our trade receivables. While we maintain reserves for potential credit losses, we cannot assure such reserves will be sufficient to meet write-offs of uncollectible receivables or that our losses from such receivables will be consistent with our expectations.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 16
Additionally, in the event of a bankruptcy of any of our customers, we may be treated as an unsecured creditor and may collect substantially less, or none, of the amounts owed to us by such customer.
Our customers’ activity levels and spending for our products and services and ability to pay amounts owed us could be impacted by the reduction of their cash flow and the ability of our customers to access equity or credit markets.
Our customers’ access to capital is dependent on their ability to access the funds necessary to develop economically attractive projects based upon their expectations of future energy prices, required investments and resulting returns. Limited access to external sources of funding has caused and may continue to cause customers to reduce their capital spending plans to levels supported by internally generated cash flow. In addition, a reduction of cash flow resulting from declines in commodity prices, a reduction in borrowing bases under reserve-based credit facilities or the lack of available debt or equity financing may impact the ability of our customers to pay amounts owed to us and could cause us to increase our reserve for credit losses.
LEGAL AND REGULATORY RISKS
Compliance with and changes in laws could be costly and could affect operating results. In addition, government disruptions could negatively impact our ability to conduct our business.
We have operations in the United States (U.S.) and in more than 120 countries that can be impacted by expected and unexpected changes in the legal and business environments in which we operate. In particular, the shipment of goods, services and technology across international borders subjects us to extensive trade laws and regulations. Our import activities are governed by the unique customs laws and regulations in each of the countries where we operate. Pursuant to their laws and regulations, governments may impose economic sanctions against certain countries, persons and entities that may restrict or prohibit transactions involving such countries, persons and entities, which may limit or prevent our conduct of business in certain jurisdictions.
Compliance-related issues could limit our ability to do business in certain countries and impact our earnings or result in investigations leading to fines, penalties or other remedial measures. Changes that could impact the legal environment include new legislation, new regulations, new policies, investigations, and legal proceedings and new interpretations of existing legal rules and regulations, in particular, changes in export control laws or exchange control laws, additional restrictions on doing business in countries subject to sanctions, and changes in laws in countries where we operate. In addition, changes and uncertainty in the political environments in which our businesses operate can have a material effect on the laws, rules, and regulations that affect our operations. Government disruptions may also delay or halt the granting and renewal of permits, licenses and other items required by us and our customers to conduct our business. The continued success of our global business and operations depends, in part, on our ability to continue to anticipate and effectively manage these and other political, legal and regulatory risks.
Our failure to comply with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and other similar laws could have a negative impact on our ongoing operations.
Our ability to comply with the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act, and various other anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws depends on the success of our ongoing compliance program, including our ability to successfully manage our agents, distributors and other business partners, and supervise, train, and retain competent employees. We could be subject to sanctions and civil and criminal prosecution, as well as fines and penalties, in the event of a finding of a violation of any of these laws by us or any of our employees.
Anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws could have adverse consequences for us.
We maintain an enterprise-wide program designed to enable us to comply with all applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws and regulations, including the Bank Secrecy Act and the Patriot Act. This program includes policies, procedures, processes, and other internal controls designed to identify, monitor, manage, and mitigate the risk of money laundering or terrorist financing posed by our products, services, customers, and geographic locale. These controls establish procedures and processes to detect and report suspicious transactions, perform customer due diligence, respond to requests from law enforcement, and meet all recordkeeping and reporting requirements related to particular transactions involving currency or monetary
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 17
instruments. We cannot be sure our programs and controls are or will remain effective to ensure our compliance with all applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws and regulations, and our failure to comply could subject us to significant sanctions, fines, penalties and reputational harm, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Changes in tax laws, tax rates, tariffs, adverse positions taken by taxing authorities, and tax audits could impact operating results.
Changes in tax laws, tax rates, tariffs, changes in interpretation of tax laws, the resolution of tax assessments or audits by various tax authorities, and the ability to fully utilize tax loss carryforwards and tax credits could impact our operating results, including additional valuation allowances for deferred tax assets.
Uninsured claims and litigation against us could adversely impact our operating results.
We could be impacted by the outcome of pending litigation, as well as unexpected litigation or proceedings. While we have insurance coverage against operating hazards, including product liability claims and personal injury claims related to our products, to the extent deemed prudent by our management and to the extent insurance is available; no assurance can be given that the nature and amount of that insurance will be sufficient to fully indemnify us against liabilities arising out of pending and future claims and litigation.
We may be subject to litigation if another party claims that we have infringed upon, misappropriated or otherwise violated its intellectual property rights.
The tools, techniques, methodologies, programs and components we use to provide our products and services may infringe upon, misappropriate or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of others or be challenged on that basis. Regardless of the merits, any such claims may result in significant legal and other costs and may distract management from running our core business. Resolving such claims could increase our costs, including through royalty payments to acquire licenses, if available, from third parties and through the development of replacement technologies. If a license to resolve a claim were not available, we might not be able to continue providing a particular service or product, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Compliance with, and rulings and litigation in connection with, environmental regulations and the environmental impacts of our or our customers’ operations may adversely affect our business and operating results.
We and our business are impacted by material changes in environmental laws, regulations, rulings and litigation. Our expectations regarding our compliance with environmental laws and regulations and our expenditures to comply with environmental laws and regulations, including (without limitation) our capital expenditures for environmental control equipment, are only our forecasts regarding these matters. These forecasts may be substantially different from actual results, which may be affected by factors such as: changes in law that impose restrictions on air or other emissions, wastewater management, waste disposal, hydraulic fracturing, or wetland and land use practices; more stringent enforcement of existing environmental laws and regulations; a change in our share of any remediation costs or other unexpected, adverse outcomes with respect to sites where we have been named as a potentially responsible party, including (without limitation) Superfund sites; the discovery of other sites, or discovery of additional issues at existing sites, where additional expenditures may be required to comply with environmental legal obligations; and the accidental discharge of hazardous materials.
Investor and public perception related to the company’s environment, social, and governance (ESG) performance as well as current and future ESG reporting requirements may affect our business and our operating results.
Increasing focus on ESG factors has led to enhanced interest in, and review of performance results by investors and other stakeholders, and the potential for reputational risk. Regulatory requirements related to ESG or sustainability reporting have been issued in the European Union that apply to financial market participants, with implementation and enforcement starting in 2021. In the U.S., such regulations have been issued related to pension investments in California, and for the responsible investment of public funds in Illinois. Additional regulation is pending in other states. We expect regulatory requirements related to ESG matters to continue to expand
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 18
globally. The Company is committed to transparent and comprehensive reporting of our sustainability performance, and considers existing standards such as the Global Reporting Initiative’s G4 guidelines, the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board’s documentation, International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association's (IPIECA) Sustainability Reporting Guidance and recommendations issued by the Financial Stability Board's Task Force for Climate-related Financial Disclosures and Science Basted Target Initiative. If we are not able to meet future sustainability reporting requirements of regulators or current and future expectations of investors, customers or other stakeholders, our business and ability to raise capital may be adversely affected.
International, national, and state governments and agencies continue to evaluate and promulgate legislation and regulations that are focused on restricting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Compliance with climate action regulations applicable to our or our customers' operations may have significant implications that could adversely affect our business and operating results in the fossil-fuel sectors, and boosting demand for technologies contributing to the climate action agenda.
In the United States, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken steps to regulate GHG emissions as air pollutants under the U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970, as amended. The EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule requires monitoring and reporting of GHG emissions from, among others, certain mobile and stationary GHG emission sources in the oil and natural gas industry, which in turn may include data from certain of our wellsite equipment and operations. In addition, the U.S. government has proposed rules in the past setting GHG emission standards for, or otherwise aimed at reducing GHG emissions from, the oil and natural gas industry.
Caps or fees on carbon emissions, including in the U.S., have been and may continue to be established and the cost of such caps or fees could disproportionately affect the fossil-fuel sectors. We are unable to predict whether and when the proposed changes in laws or regulations ultimately will occur or what they ultimately will require, and accordingly, we are unable to assess the potential financial or operational impact they may have on our business.
Other developments focused on restricting GHG emissions include the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which includes implementation of the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol by the signatories; the European Union Emission Trading System; Article 8 of the European Union Energy Efficiency Directive and the United Kingdom’s Streamlined Energy and Carbon Reporting (SECR); the European Commission’s proposed carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM); and, in the U.S., the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Western Climate Action Initiative, and various state programs implementing the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (known as Assembly Bill 32).
Requirements and voluntary initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as increased climate change awareness, may result in increased costs for the oil and gas industry to curb greenhouse gas emissions and could have an adverse impact on demand for oil and natural gas.
International, national, and state governments, agencies and bodies continue to evaluate and promulgate regulations and voluntary initiatives that are focused on restricting GHG emissions. These requirements and initiatives are likely to become more stringent over time and to result in increased costs for the oil and gas industry to curb GHG emissions. In addition, these developments, and public perception relating to climate change, may curtail production and demand for hydrocarbons such as oil and natural gas by shifting demand towards and investment in relatively lower carbon energy sources such as wind, solar and alternative energy solutions. If renewable energy becomes more competitive than fossil-fuel energy globally, it could have a material effect on our results of operations.
The potential for climate related changes may pose future risks to our operations and those of our customers.
These changes can include extreme variability in weather patterns such as increased frequency and severity of significant weather events (e.g. flooding, hurricanes and tropical storms), natural hazards (e.g., increased wildfire risk), rising mean temperature and sea levels, and long-term changes in precipitation patterns (e.g. drought, desertification, or poor water quality). Such changes have the potential to affect business continuity and operating results, particularly at facilities in coastal areas or areas prone to chronic water scarcity.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 19
Changes in laws or regulations relating to data privacy and security, or any actual or perceived failure by us to comply with such laws or regulations, or contractual or other obligations relating to data privacy or security, may adversely affect our business and operating results.
We may have access to sensitive, confidential, proprietary or personal data or information in certain of our businesses that is or may become subject to various data privacy and security laws, regulations, standards, contractual obligations or customer-imposed controls in the jurisdictions in which we operate. The legal and regulatory environment related to data privacy and security is increasingly rigorous, with new and constantly changing requirements applicable to our business, and enforcement practices are likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. These laws and regulations may be interpreted and applied differently over time and from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and it is possible that they will be interpreted and applied in ways that may adversely affect our business and operating results.
In the U.S., various federal and state regulators, including governmental agencies like the Federal Trade Commission, have adopted, or are considering adopting, laws, regulations and standards concerning personal information and data security. Internationally, laws, regulations and standards in many jurisdictions apply broadly to the collection, use, retention, security, disclosure, transfer and other processing of personal information or other data. These various and evolving federal, state and international laws, regulations and standards can differ significantly from one another and, given our global footprint, this may significantly complicate our compliance efforts and impose considerable costs, such as costs related to organizational changes and implementing additional protection technologies, which are likely to increase over time. In addition, compliance with applicable requirements may require us to modify our data processing practices and policies, distract management or divert resources from other initiatives and projects, all of which could adversely affect our business and operating results. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with any applicable federal, state or international laws, regulations, standards, or contractual or other obligations, relating to data privacy and security could result in damage to our reputation and our relationship with our customers, as well as proceedings or litigation by governmental agencies, customers or individuals, which could subject us to significant fines, sanctions, awards, penalties or judgments, all of which could adversely affect our business and operating results.
The effects of Brexit may have a negative impact on our financial results and operations of the business.
The United Kingdom (UK) exited (Brexit) the European Union (EU) on January 31, 2020. As per the terms of the exit the UK has ceased to be an EU member but continued to follow its rules and contribute to its budget for an 11 month transition period ending December 31, 2020. The purpose of the transition period was to give time for the UK and EU to negotiate their future relationship, including a trade deal. On December 24, 2020, the UK and the EU reached an agreement on the terms of their future cooperation. A trade deal was agreed upon and implemented as of December 31, 2020. While there remains some uncertainty as to aspects of the relationship not covered by the agreement, the major risk of a break in trade between the UK and the EU has now been removed. The remaining uncertainty could harm our business and financial results due to fluctuations in the value of the British pound versus the U.S. dollar, euro, and other currencies and could result in delayed deliveries, which may impact our internal supply chain and our customer projects.
An inability to obtain, maintain, protect or enforce our intellectual property rights could adversely affect our business.
There can be no assurance that the steps we take to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights will be completely adequate. Our intellectual property rights may fail to provide us with significant competitive advantages, particularly in foreign jurisdictions where we have not invested in an intellectual property portfolio or that do not have, or do not enforce, strong intellectual property rights. The weakening of protection of our trademarks, patents and other intellectual property rights could also adversely affect our business.
We are a party to a number of licenses that give us rights to intellectual property that is necessary or useful to our business. Our success depends in part on the ability of our licensors to obtain, maintain, protect and sufficiently enforce the licensed intellectual property rights we have commercialized. Without protection for the intellectual property rights we license, other companies might be able to offer substantially identical products for sale, which could adversely affect our competitive business position and harm our business products. Also, there can be no
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 20
assurances that we will be able to obtain or renew from third parties the licenses to use intellectual property rights we need in the future, and there is no assurance that such licenses can be obtained on reasonable terms. We would be adversely affected in the event that any such license agreement was terminated without the right for us to continue using the licensed intellectual property.
Increased cybersecurity vulnerabilities and threats, and more sophisticated and targeted cyber attacks and other security incidents, pose risks to our systems, data and business, and our relationships with customers and other third parties.
In the course of conducting our business, we may hold or have access to sensitive, confidential, proprietary or personal data or information belonging to us, our employees or third parties, including customers, partners or suppliers. Increased cybersecurity vulnerabilities and threats, and more sophisticated and targeted cyber attacks and other security incidents, pose risks to our and our customers’, partners’, suppliers’ and third-party service providers’ systems, data, and business, and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our and our employees’ and customers’ data. While we attempt to mitigate these risks, we remain vulnerable to cyber attacks and other security incidents. Given our global footprint, the large number of customers, partners, suppliers and service providers with which we do business, and the increasing sophistication and complexity of cyber attacks, a cyber attack could occur and persist for an extended period without detection. Any investigation of a cyber attack or other security incident would be inherently unpredictable and it would take time before the completion of any investigation and before there is availability of full and reliable information. During such time we would not necessarily know the extent of the harm or how best to remediate it, and certain errors or actions could be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and remediated, all or any of which would further increase the costs and consequences of a cyber attack or other security incident. We may be required to expend significant resources to protect against, respond to, and recover from any cyber attacks and other security incidents. As cyber attacks continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. In addition, our remediation efforts may not be successful. The inability to implement, maintain and upgrade adequate safeguards could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
In addition to our own systems, we use third-party service providers to process certain data or information on our behalf. Due to applicable laws and regulations or contractual obligations, we may be held responsible for cybersecurity incidents attributed to our service providers to the extent affecting information we share with them. Although we contractually require these service providers to implement and maintain reasonable security measures, we cannot control third parties and cannot guarantee that a security breach will not occur in their systems.
Despite our and our service providers’ efforts to protect our data and information, we and our service providers have been and may in the future be vulnerable to security breaches, theft, misplaced or lost data, programming errors, phishing attacks, denial of service attacks, acts of vandalism, computer viruses, malware, ransomware, employee errors and/or malfeasance or similar events, including those perpetrated by criminals or nation-state actors, that could potentially lead to the compromise, unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification or destruction of data or information, improper use of our systems, defective products, production downtimes and operational disruptions. In addition, a cyber attack or any other significant compromise or breach of our data security, media reports about such an incident, whether accurate or not, or, under certain circumstances, our failure to make adequate or timely disclosures to the public, law enforcement agencies or affected individuals following any such event, whether due to delayed discovery or a failure to follow existing protocols, could adversely impact our operating results and result in other negative consequences, including damage to our reputation or competitiveness, harm to our relationships with customers, partners, suppliers and other third parties, distraction to our management, remediation or increased protection costs, significant litigation or regulatory action, fines and penalties. Given the increased prevalence of customer-imposed cybersecurity controls and other related contractual obligations towards customers or other third parties, a cyber attack or other security incident also could result in breach of contract or indemnity claims against us by customers or other counterparties.
While we currently maintain cybersecurity insurance, such insurance may not be sufficient in type or amount to cover us against claims related to cybersecurity breaches or attacks, failures or other data security-related incidents, and we cannot be certain that cyber insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that an insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 21
changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
INDUSTRY AND MARKET RISKS
Volatility of oil and natural gas prices can adversely affect demand for our products and services.
Prices of oil and gas products are set on a commodity basis. As a result, the volatility in oil and natural gas prices can impact our customers’ activity levels and spending for our products and services. Current energy prices are important contributors to cash flow for our customers and their ability to fund exploration and development activities. Expectations about future prices and price volatility are important for determining future spending levels.
Demand for oil and natural gas is subject to factors beyond our control, which may adversely affect our operating results. Changes in the global economy could impact our customers’ spending levels and our revenue and operating results.
Demand for oil and natural gas, as well as the demand for our services and products, is highly correlated with global economic growth. A prolonged reduction in oil and natural gas prices may require us to record additional asset impairments. Such a potential impairment charge could have a material adverse impact on our operating results.
Supply of oil and natural gas is subject to factors beyond our control, which may adversely affect our operating results.
Productive capacity for oil and natural gas is dependent on our customers’ decisions to develop and produce oil and natural gas reserves and on the regulatory environment in which our customers and we operate. The ability to produce oil and natural gas can be affected by the number and productivity of new wells drilled and completed, as well as the rate of production and resulting depletion of existing wells.
Currency fluctuations or devaluations may impact our operating results.
Fluctuations or devaluations in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar can impact our revenue and our costs of doing business, as well as the costs of doing business of our customers.
Changes in economic and/or market conditions may impact our ability to borrow and/or cost of borrowing.
The condition of the capital markets and equity markets in general can affect the price of our common stock and our ability to obtain financing, if necessary. If our credit rating is downgraded, it could increase borrowing costs under credit facilities and commercial paper programs, as well as increase the cost of renewing or obtaining, or make it more difficult to renew, obtain, or issue new debt financing.
RISKS RELATED TO THE SEPARATION FROM GE
We may experience challenges relating to the separation from GE and the anticipated benefits from the Master Agreement Framework and the Omnibus Agreement.
If we experience difficulties with the separation from GE, the anticipated benefits of the Master Agreement Framework and the Omnibus Agreement, may not be realized fully or at all, may take longer to realize than expected, or may be offset by the decrease in business from certain customers or other negative impacts. The impact of the separation from GE could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or other prospects on an ongoing basis.
We have incurred and expect to continue to incur additional costs in connection with the separation from GE, the Master Agreement Framework and the Omnibus Agreement.
Actual costs related to the separation and the implementation of the changes contemplated by the Master Agreement Framework and the Omnibus Agreement may be higher than anticipated, and we may experience additional difficulties in effecting such changes.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 22
We are also a party to a number of licenses with GE that give us rights to intellectual property that is necessary or useful to our business. We would be adversely affected in the event these agreements were terminated without the right for us to continue accessing and using such licensed intellectual property as we might continue to improve current products and services or develop new ones.
Although we are no longer a “controlled company,” the interests of GE may differ from the interests of other stockholders of the Company.
GE and its affiliates are no longer a majority stockholder after the completion of a secondary offering in September 2019. GE may still exercise significant influence over matters submitted to our stockholders for approval through their ownership of our common stock. GE may also have influence over matters that do not require stockholder approval. GE may have different interests than other holders of our common stock on these and other matters. Among other things, GE’s influence could delay, defer, or prevent a sale of the Company that other stockholders support, or, conversely, this influence could result in the consummation of such a transaction that other stockholders do not support. This concentrated influence could discourage a potential investor from seeking to acquire Class A common stock and, as a result, might harm the market price of that Class A common stock. In addition, pursuant to the provisions set forth in our charter, our bylaws and the Amended and Restated Stockholders Agreement, dated as of November 13, 2018, by and between us and GE, as amended from time to time, GE is entitled to designate one person for nomination to our board of directors until such time as GE and its affiliates own less than 20% of the voting power of all classes of our outstanding voting stock. Although we are no longer controlled by GE, our success will remain partially dependent on GE through, among other things, our reliance on the long-term agreements and transition services agreements between the Company and GE and the public perception of our affiliation with GE. Failure of GE to comply with these agreements could have an adverse impact on our business operations.
The market price of our Class A common stock could be materially impacted due to the substantial number of shares of our capital stock eligible for sale in any future offerings by GE.
GE and its affiliates beneficially owned (assuming full exchange of its shares of Class B common stock pursuant to the Exchange Agreement) as of December 31, 2020, approximately 30% of our outstanding Class A common stock. Pursuant to the Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement, dated July 31, 2019, as further amended from time to time, GE has the right to cause us, in certain instances, at our expense, to register resales of our Class A common stock held by GE under the Securities Act. These shares also may be sold pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act, subject to restrictions while GE is deemed to be our affiliate. Future sales of a substantial number of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could substantially decrease the market price of our Class A common stock. We cannot assure you if or when any future offerings or resales of these shares may occur.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR STOCK
The market price and trading volume of our Class A common stock may be volatile, which could result in rapid and substantial losses for our stockholders.
The market price of our Class A common stock may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations. In addition, the trading volume in our Class A common stock may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. If the market price of our Class A common stock declines significantly, our stockholders may be unable to sell their shares of our Class A common stock at or above their purchase price, if at all. We cannot assure our stockholders that the market price of our Class A common stock will not fluctuate or decline significantly in the future. Some of the factors that could negatively affect the price of our Class A common stock or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of our Class A common stock include: variations in our quarterly operating results; failure to meet our earnings estimates; publication of research reports about us or our industry or the failure of securities analysts to cover our Class A common stock after the offering; additions or departures of our executive officers and other key management personnel; adverse market reaction to any indebtedness we may incur or securities we may issue in the future; actions by stockholders; offerings of our Class A common stock by GE or its affiliates or the perceived possibility of such offerings; changes in market valuations of similar companies; speculation in the press or investment community; changes or proposed changes in laws or regulations or differing interpretations thereof affecting our business or enforcement of these laws and regulations, or announcements
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 23
relating to these matters; adverse publicity about our industry generally or individual scandals, specifically; and general market and economic conditions.
Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law might discourage or delay acquisition attempts for us that might be considered favorable.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may delay or prevent a merger or acquisition that a stockholder may consider favorable by permitting our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock, requiring advance notice for stockholder proposals and nominations, and placing limitations on convening stockholder meetings. These provisions may also discourage acquisition proposals, delay, or prevent a change in control, which could harm our stock price.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We own or lease numerous properties throughout the world. We consider our manufacturing plants, equipment assembly, maintenance and overhaul facilities, grinding plants, drilling fluids and chemical processing centers, and primary research and technology centers to be our principal properties. The following sets forth the location of our principal owned or leased facilities for our business segments as of December 31, 2020:
|Oilfield Services: |
Houston, Pasadena, and The Woodlands, Texas; Broken Arrow and Claremore, Oklahoma - all located in the United States; Leduc, Canada; Celle, Germany; Tananger, Norway; Aberdeen, Scotland; Liverpool, England; Macae, Brazil; Singapore, Singapore; Kakinada, India; Abu Dhabi and Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Luanda, Angola; Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Houston and Humble, Texas - located in the United States; Montrose, Scotland; Nailsea, England; Niteroi, Brazil; Suzhou, China; Dammam, Saudi Arabia
|Turbomachinery & Process Solutions:|
Deer Park, Texas and Jacksonville, Florida - located in the United States; Florence and Massa, Italy; Le Creusot, France; Coimbatore, India
Billerica, Massachusetts and Minden, Nevada - located in the United States; Groby, England; Shannon, Ireland; Hurth, Germany
We own or lease numerous other facilities such as service centers, blend plants, workshops and sales and administrative offices throughout the geographic regions in which we operate. We also have a significant investment in service vehicles, tools and manufacturing and other equipment. All of our owned properties are unencumbered. We believe that our facilities are well maintained and suitable for their intended purposes.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information with respect to Item 3. Legal Proceedings is contained in "Note 19. Commitments and Contingencies" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Our barite mining operations, in support of our drilling fluids products and services business, are subject to regulation by the federal Mine Safety and Health Administration under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. We have no mine safety violations or other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and Item 104 of Regulation S-K to report for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 24
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol 'BKR'. As of February 19, 2021, there were approximately 6,506 stockholders of record. All of our issued and outstanding Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, is owned by GE and its affiliate.
The following table contains information about our purchases of Class A common stock equity securities during the fourth quarter of 2020.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Per Share (2)
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of a Publicly
Announced Plan or Programs (3)
Maximum Dollar Value
of Shares that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the Plan or Programs (3)
|October 1-31, 2020||3,238 ||$||15.13 ||—||$||18,690,655 |
|November 1-30, 2020||14,490 ||20.01 ||—||$||18,690,655 |
|December 1-31, 2020||9,893 ||20.51 ||—||$||18,690,655 |
|Total||27,621 ||$||19.62 ||—|
(1)Represents Class A common stock purchased from employees to satisfy the tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of restricted stock units and from the automatic exercise of certain stock options at their expiration.
(2)Average price paid for Class A common stock purchased from employees to satisfy the tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of restricted stock units.
(3)We did not repurchase any shares of Class A common stock in the fourth quarter of 2020. As of December 31, 2020, the stock repurchase program has been substantially completed.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 25
Corporate Performance Graph
The following graphs compare the change in our cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock (assuming reinvestment of dividends into common stock at the date of payment) with the cumulative total return on the published Standard & Poor's (S&P) 500 Stock Index and the cumulative total return on the S&P 500 Oil and Gas Equipment and Services Index over the preceding five-year period. The first graph below reflects total shareholder returns for Baker Hughes Incorporated (our predecessor issuer pursuant to Rule 12g-3(a) under the Securities Exchange Act) from December 31, 2015 to July 3, 2017, the date of consummation of the Transactions. The second graph below reflects the total shareholder returns for our common stock from July 5, 2017, the first business day following consummation of the Transactions, to December 31, 2020.
Comparison of One Year and Six Months Cumulative Total Return
BHI; S&P 500 Index and S&P 500 Oil and Gas Equipment and Services Index
|Baker Hughes Incorporated (BHI)||$||100.00 ||$||142.81 ||$||127.51 |
|S&P 500 Stock Index||100.00 ||111.96 ||122.71 |
S&P 500 Oil and Gas Equipment and Services Index
|100.00 ||131.93 ||154.89 |
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 26
The following graph compares the change in cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock (assuming reinvestment of dividends into common stock at the date of payment) with the cumulative total return on the published S&P 500 Stock Index and the cumulative total return on the S&P 500 Oil and Gas Equipment and Services Index over the preceding three year and six month period. The graph reflects total shareholder returns for our common stock from July 5, 2017, the first business day following consummation of the Transactions, to December 31, 2020.
Comparison of Three Years and Six Months Cumulative Total Return
BKR; S&P 500 Index and S&P 500 Oil and Gas Equipment and Services Index
|December 31, 2017||2018||2019||2020|
|Baker Hughes Company (BKR)||$||100.00 ||$||85.84 ||$||59.73 ||$||73.44 ||$||62.33 |
|S&P 500 Stock Index||100.00 ||110.97 ||106.11 ||139.52 ||165.19 |
S&P 500 Oil and Gas Equipment and Services Index
|100.00 ||106.02 ||62.06 ||68.59 ||43.75 |
The comparison of total return on investment (change in year-end stock price plus reinvested dividends) assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2015 and July 5, 2017, respectively, in BHI and Baker Hughes common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Oil and Gas Equipment and Services Index.
The corporate performance graph and related information shall not be deemed "soliciting material" or to be "filed" with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that Baker Hughes specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing.
ITEM 6. (REMOVED AND RESERVED)
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 27
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data contained herein.
For management's discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations for fiscal year 2019 as compared to fiscal year 2018 please refer to Part II, Item 7 "Management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations" on Form 10-K for our fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 13, 2020.
We are an energy technology company with a broad and diversified portfolio of technologies and services that span the energy and industrial value chain. We operate through our four business segments: Oilfield Services (OFS), Oilfield Equipment (OFE), Turbomachinery & Process Solutions (TPS), and Digital Solutions (DS).
We sell products and services primarily in the global oil and gas markets, within the upstream, midstream and downstream segments. Throughout 2020, the industry experienced multiple factors which drove expectations for global oil and gas related spending to be lower than 2019. First, the COVID-19 pandemic lowered global demand for hydrocarbons, as social distancing and travel restrictions were implemented across the world. Second, the lifting of Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC+) supply curtailments in the first quarter of 2020, and the associated increase in production, drove the global excess supply of hydrocarbons higher. In the second quarter of 2020, OPEC+ reached a supply curtailment agreement of up to 10 million barrels per day, which drove expectations for future hydrocarbon supply lower. After significant turmoil during the first half of the year from the industry downturn, oil markets stabilized and demand for oil improved in the second half of the year. Lastly, global gross domestic product (GDP) declined in 2020, as a result of the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic.
Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, the health and safety of our employees has continued to be a top priority. We have taken critical steps as a company to reduce the risk of exposure, as well as mitigate the impacts of this pandemic to our employees, contractors and partners. We have adopted remote working where possible. Where on-site operations are required, masks are mandatory and our employees have adopted social distancing. We have worked with our employees to implement other site-specific precautionary measures to reduce the risk of exposure. We are collaborating closely with our customers, suppliers, and vendors to minimize operational disruption. In addition, we have restricted non-essential business travel and have encouraged our employees, customers and partners to collaborate virtually.
Our goal throughout the downturn in 2020 was to remain disciplined in allocating capital, focus on liquidity and cash preservation, and to preserve our investment grade rating while also maintaining our current dividend payout.
During the year, we took necessary actions to right-size the business for expected activity levels. In the first quarter of 2020, we approved a plan for restructuring and other actions totaling $1.8 billion, which was increased by $0.3 billion as we took further actions during the year to address the continuing industry challenges. Total restructuring and other costs were $2.1 billion in 2020. These charges are primarily related to the costs for reductions in work force, product line exits in certain geographies, and the write down of inventory and intangible assets. These actions took place across the business and our corporate functions. We expect the cash payback of these actions to be less than one year.
In addition, during the first quarter of 2020, our market capitalization declined significantly driven by the macroeconomic and geopolitical conditions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and collapse of oil prices. Based on these events, we concluded that a triggering event occurred, and we performed an interim quantitative impairment test as of March 31, 2020. Based upon the results of the impairment test, we recognized a goodwill impairment charge of $14.8 billion during the first quarter of 2020. There were no other goodwill impairments in 2020.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 28
In 2020, we generated revenue of $20.7 billion, compared to $23.8 billion in 2019. The decrease in revenue was driven by declines in all four of our segments primarily due to the industry downturn. Loss before income taxes was $15.2 billion in 2020, and included goodwill impairment charges of $14.8 billion, restructuring and impairment charges of $1.9 billion, inventory impairment charges of $246 million, separation and merger related costs of $134 million, and a gain of $1.4 billion related to our investment in C3.ai recorded in other non-operating income. In 2019, income before income taxes was $0.8 billion, which also included restructuring and impairment charges of $342 million, and separation and merger related costs of $184 million.
The gain of $1.4 billion related to our C3.ai investment was recorded in the fourth quarter of 2020. We invested in C3.ai when we formed our partnership in June 2019. In December 2020, C3.ai completed its initial public offering, which requires us to mark our investment to fair value. Both our investment and strong partnership with C3.ai demonstrate our commitment for growth in high potential segments as we develop and market new AI solutions for the oil and gas industry.
Our business is exposed to a number of macro factors, which influence our outlook and expectations given the current volatile conditions in the industry. After significant volatility during the first half of 2020, oil markets stabilized during the second half of the year. However, there is still uncertainty in the global economic outlook and impact on oil and gas markets in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.
•North America onshore activity: in 2020, we experienced a significant decline in rig count, as compared to 2019 driven by lower commodity prices. We expect North American onshore activity to improve in 2021, as compared to the second half of 2020.
•International onshore activity: in 2020, we experienced a decline in rig count, as compared to 2019 driven by lower commodity prices. We expect onshore spending outside of North America to stabilize in early 2021, and see a modest recovery over the second half of the year.
•Offshore projects: in 2020, we experienced significantly fewer offshore projects reaching positive final investment decisions, due to the economic uncertainty and lower oil and gas prices. In 2021, we expect the offshore markets to stabilize and for the number of tree awards in the market to remain stable or grow modestly compared to 2020 levels.
•Liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects: we remain optimistic on the LNG market long term and view natural gas as a transition and destination fuel. We continue to view the long-term economics of the LNG industry as positive.
We have other segments in our portfolio that are more correlated with various industrial metrics, including GDP, such as our Digital Solutions segment.
We also have segments within our portfolio that are exposed to new energy solutions, specifically focused around decarbonization of energy and industry, including hydrogen, geothermal, carbon capture, utilization and storage, and energy storage. We expect to see continued growth in these segments as new energy solutions become a more prevalent part of the broader energy mix.
Overall, we believe our portfolio is well positioned to compete across the energy value chain and deliver comprehensive solutions for our customers. We remain optimistic about the long-term economics of the industry, but we are continuing to operate with flexibility given our expectations for volatility and changing activity levels in the near term. While governments may change or discontinue incentives for renewable energy additions, we do not anticipate any significant impacts to our business in the foreseeable future.
Over time, we believe the world’s demand for energy will continue to rise, and that hydrocarbons will play a major role in meeting the world's energy needs for the foreseeable future. As such, we remain focused on delivering innovative, cost-efficient solutions that deliver step changes in operating and economic performance for our customers.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 29
The following discussion and analysis summarizes the significant factors affecting our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity position as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes of the Company.
We operate in more than 120 countries helping customers find, evaluate, drill, produce, transport and process hydrocarbon resources. Our revenue is predominately generated from the sale of products and services to major, national, and independent oil and natural gas companies worldwide, and is dependent on spending by our customers for oil and natural gas exploration, field development and production. This spending is driven by a number of factors, including our customers' forecasts of future energy demand and supply, their access to resources to develop and produce oil and natural gas, their ability to fund their capital programs, the impact of new government regulations and most importantly, their expectations for oil and natural gas prices as a key driver of their cash flows.
Oil and Natural Gas Prices
Oil and natural gas prices are summarized in the table below as averages of the daily closing prices during each of the periods indicated.
Brent oil prices ($/Bbl) (1)
|$||41.96 ||$||64.28 |
WTI oil prices ($/Bbl) (2)
|39.16 ||56.98 |
Natural gas prices ($/mmBtu) (3)
|2.03 ||2.56 |
(1)Energy Information Administration (EIA) Europe Brent Spot Price per Barrel
(2)EIA Cushing, OK WTI (West Texas Intermediate) spot price
(3)EIA Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price per million British Thermal Unit
Outside North America, customer spending is most heavily influenced by Brent oil prices. After a stable and positive 2019, volatility increased sharply in April 2020 when oil prices dropped nearly 87%, due to lower demand. Brent oil prices decreased from a high of $70.25/Bbl in January 2020, to a low of $9.12/Bbl in April 2020. The average Brent oil prices decreased to $41.96/Bbl in 2020 from $64.28/Bbl in 2019, due to lower prices during majority of the year 2020.
In North America, customer spending is highly driven by WTI oil prices, which similarly to Brent oil prices, on average decreased to $39.16/Bbl in 2020 from $56.98/Bbl in 2019, and ranged from a high of $63.27/Bbl in January 2020, to a low of $(36.98)/Bbl in April 2020.
In North America, natural gas prices, as measured by the Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price, averaged $2.03/mmBtu in 2020, representing a 21% decrease over the prior year. Throughout the year, Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Prices ranged from a low of $1.33/mmBtu in September 2020, to a high of $3.14/mmBtu in October 2020. According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), working natural gas in storage at the end of 2020 was 3,460 billion cubic feet (Bcf), which was 7.7%, or 268 Bcf, above the corresponding week in 2019.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 30
Baker Hughes Rig Count
The Baker Hughes rig counts are an important business barometer for the drilling industry and its suppliers. When drilling rigs are active they consume products and services produced by the oil service industry. Rig count trends are driven by the exploration and development spending by oil and natural gas companies, which in turn is influenced by current and future price expectations for oil and natural gas. The counts may reflect the relative strength and stability of energy prices and overall market activity, however, these counts should not be solely relied on as other specific and pervasive conditions may exist that affect overall energy prices and market activity.
We have been providing rig counts to the public since 1944. We gather all relevant data through our field service personnel, who obtain the necessary data from routine visits to the various rigs, customers, contractors and other outside sources as necessary. We base the classification of a well as either oil or natural gas primarily upon filings made by operators in the relevant jurisdiction. This data is then compiled and distributed to various wire services and trade associations and is published on our website. We believe the counting process and resulting data is reliable, however, it is subject to our ability to obtain accurate and timely information. Rig counts are compiled weekly for the U.S. and Canada and monthly for all international rigs. Published international rig counts do not include rigs drilling in certain locations, such as Russia, the Caspian region and onshore China because this information is not readily available.
Beginning in the second quarter of 2019, Ukraine was added to the Baker Hughes international rig count. The Company will continue tracking active drilling rigs in the country going forward. Historical periods will not be updated.
Rigs in the U.S. and Canada are counted as active if, on the day the count is taken, the well being drilled has been started but drilling has not been completed and the well is anticipated to be of sufficient depth to be a potential consumer of our drill bits. In international areas, rigs are counted on a weekly basis and deemed active if drilling activities occurred during the majority of the week. The weekly results are then averaged for the month and published accordingly. The rig count does not include rigs that are in transit from one location to another, rigging up, being used in non-drilling activities including production testing, completion and workover, and are not expected to be significant consumers of drill bits.
The rig counts are summarized in the table below as averages for each of the periods indicated.
|North America||522 ||1,077 |
|International||827 ||1,097 |
|Worldwide||1,349 ||2,174 |
2020 Compared to 2019
Overall the rig count was 1,349 in 2020, a decrease of 38% as compared to 2019 due primarily to North American activity. The rig count in North America decreased 52% and the international rig count decreased 25% in 2020 compared to 2019, both as a result of lower commodity prices and exploration and production capital expenditure reductions.
Within North America, the decrease was primarily driven by the U.S. rig count, which was down 54% on average when compared to the same period last year, and a decrease in the Canadian rig count, which was down 33% on average. Internationally, the decrease in the rig count was driven primarily by decreases in the Latin America region, Africa region and Europe region of 44%, 34% and 24%, respectively.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 31
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The discussions below relating to significant line items from our consolidated statements of income (loss) are based on available information and represent our analysis of significant changes or events that impact the comparability of reported amounts. Where appropriate, we have identified specific events and changes that affect comparability or trends and, where reasonably practicable, have quantified the impact of such items. In addition, the discussions below for revenue and cost of revenue are on a total basis as the business drivers for product sales and services are similar. All dollar amounts in tabulations in this section are in millions of dollars, unless otherwise stated. Certain columns and rows may not add due to the use of rounded numbers.
Our results of operations are evaluated by the Chief Executive Officer on a consolidated basis as well as at the segment level. The performance of our operating segments is evaluated based on segment operating income (loss), which is defined as income (loss) before income taxes and equity in loss of affiliate and before the following: net interest expense, net other non-operating income (loss), corporate expenses, restructuring, impairment and other charges, goodwill and inventory impairments, separation-related costs, and certain gains and losses not allocated to the operating segments.
In evaluating the segment performance, the Company uses the following:
Volume: Volume is the increase or decrease in products and/or services sold period-over-period excluding the impact of foreign exchange and price. The volume impact on profit is calculated by multiplying the prior period profit rate by the change in revenue volume between the current and prior period. It also includes price, defined as the change in sales price for a comparable product or service period-over-period and is calculated as the period-over-period change in sales prices of comparable products and services.
Foreign Exchange (FX): FX measures the translational foreign exchange impact, or the translation impact of the period-over-period change on sales and costs directly attributable to change in the foreign exchange rate compared to the U.S. dollar. FX impact is calculated by multiplying the functional currency amounts (revenue or profit) with the period-over-period FX rate variance, using the average exchange rate for the respective period.
(Inflation)/Deflation: (Inflation)/deflation is defined as the increase or decrease in direct and indirect costs of the same type for an equal amount of volume. It is calculated as the year-over-year change in cost (i.e. price paid) of direct material, compensation & benefits and overhead costs.
Productivity: Productivity is measured by the remaining variance in profit, after adjusting for the period-over-period impact of volume & price, foreign exchange and (inflation)/deflation as defined above. Improved or lower period-over-period cost productivity is the result of cost efficiencies or inefficiencies, such as cost decreasing or increasing more than volume, or cost increasing or decreasing less than volume, or changes in sales mix among segments. This also includes the period-over-period variance of transactional foreign exchange, aside from those foreign currency devaluations that are reported separately for business evaluation purposes.
Orders and Remaining Performance Obligations
Our statement of income (loss) displays sales and costs of sales in accordance with SEC regulations under which “goods” is required to include all sales of tangible products and “services” must include all other sales, including other services activities. For the amounts shown below, we distinguish between “equipment” and “product services,” where product services refers to sales under product services agreements, including sales of both goods (such as spare parts and equipment upgrades) and related services (such as monitoring, maintenance and repairs), which is an important part of our operations. We refer to “product services” simply as “services” within Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Orders: We recognized orders of $20.7 billion and $27.0 billion in 2020 and 2019, respectively. In 2020, equipment orders were down 27% and service orders were down 20%, compared to 2019.
Remaining Performance Obligations (RPO): As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to the unsatisfied (or partially unsatisfied) performance obligations was $23.4 billion and $22.9 billion, respectively.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 32
Revenue and Segment Operating Income Before Tax
Revenue and segment operating income for each of our four operating segments is provided below.
|Year Ended December 31,||$ Change|
|2020||2019||From 2019 to 2020|
|Oilfield Services||$||10,140 ||$||12,889 ||$||(2,749)|
|Oilfield Equipment||2,844 ||2,921 ||(77)|
|Turbomachinery & Process Solutions||5,705 ||5,536 ||169 |
|Digital Solutions||2,015 ||2,492 ||(477)|
|Total||$||20,705 ||$||23,838 ||$||(3,133)|
|Year Ended December 31,||$ Change|
|2020||2019||From 2019 to 2020|
Segment operating income:
|Oilfield Services||$||487 ||$||917 ||$||(430)|
|Oilfield Equipment||19 ||55 ||(36)|
|Turbomachinery & Process Solutions||805 ||719 ||86 |
|Digital Solutions||193 ||343 ||(150)|
|Total segment operating income ||1,504 ||2,035 ||(531)|
Inventory impairment (1)
|Goodwill impairment||(14,773)||— ||(14,773)|
|Restructuring, impairment and other||(1,866)||(342)||(1,524)|
|Separation and merger related||(134)||(184)||50 |
|Operating income (loss)||(15,978)||1,074 ||(17,052)|
|Other non-operating income (loss), net||1,040 ||(84)||1,124 |
|Interest expense, net||(264)||(237)||(27)|
|Income (loss) before income taxes and equity in loss of affiliate||(15,202)||753 ||(15,955)|
|Benefit (provision) for income taxes||(559)||(482)||(77)|
|Net income (loss)||$||(15,761)||$||271 ||$||(16,032)|
(1)Inventory impairments are reported in "Cost of goods sold" of the consolidated statements of income (loss).
Fiscal Year 2020 to Fiscal Year 2019
Revenue in 2020 was $20,705 million, a decrease of $3,133 million, or 13%, from 2019. This decrease in revenue was largely a result of decreased activity in OFS, DS and OFE, partially offset by an increase in TPS. OFS decreased $2,749 million, DS decreased $477 million, OFE decreased $77 million, and TPS increased $169 million.
Total segment operating income in 2020 was $1,504 million, a decrease of $531 million, or 26%, from 2019. The decrease was primarily driven by OFS, which decreased $430 million, OFE, which decreased $36 million and DS, which decreased $150 million, partially offset by TPS, which increased $86 million.
OFS 2020 revenue was $10,140 million, a decrease of $2,749 million from 2019, as a result of decreased activity in North America and international in 2020 compared to 2019, as evidenced by a decline in the corresponding rig counts. North America revenue was $2,802 million in 2020, a decrease of $1,794 million from
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 33
2019. International revenue was $7,338 million in 2020, a decrease of $955 million from 2019, driven by declines in most regions, primarily in the Middle East and Latin America regions.
OFS 2020 segment operating income was $487 million, compared to $917 million in 2019. The decrease was primarily driven by lower volume, and to a lesser extent, unfavorable business mix, partially offset by our restructuring and productivity initiatives.
OFE 2020 revenue was $2,844 million, a decrease of $77 million, or 3%, from 2019. The decrease was primarily driven by lower volume in the services business, mostly driven by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by higher volume in the subsea production systems and flexible pipe businesses. The decrease was also impacted by the sale of the Surface Pressure Control Flow business in October 2020.
OFE 2020 segment operating income was $19 million, compared to $55 million in 2019. The decrease was primarily driven by unfavorable business mix and to a lesser extent by lower volume.
Turbomachinery & Process Solutions
TPS 2020 revenue was $5,705 million, an increase of $169 million, or 3%, from 2019. The increase was primarily driven by higher equipment and projects revenue, partially offset by lower services volume as well as business dispositions that occurred in 2019. Equipment revenue in 2020 represented 44% and Service revenue represented 56% of total revenue. Equipment revenue was up 27% year-over-year, and services revenue was down 10% year-over-year, partially due to mobility restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
TPS 2020 segment operating income was $805 million, compared to $719 million in 2019. The increase in profitability was driven primarily by higher cost productivity and to a lesser extent by higher volume, partially offset by unfavorable business mix.
DS 2020 revenue was $2,015 million, a decrease of $477 million, or 19%, from 2019, driven by volume declines across most DS segments, largely driven by lower economic activity related to COVID-19 disruptions.
DS 2020 segment operating income was $193 million, compared to $343 million in 2019. The decrease in profitability was primarily driven by lower volume.
In 2020, corporate expenses were $464 million, an increase of $31 million compared to 2019, primarily from the additional expenses related to the separation from GE.
In 2020, we recorded inventory impairments of $246 million, primarily related to our Oilfield Services segment as a result of certain restructuring activities initiated by the Company. There were no inventory impairments recorded in 2019. Charges for inventory impairments are reported in the "Cost of goods sold" caption of the consolidated statements of income (loss).
During the first quarter of 2020, the Company’s market capitalization declined significantly driven by current macroeconomic and geopolitical conditions including the decrease in demand caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and collapse of oil prices driven by both surplus production and supply. Based on these events, we concluded that a triggering event occurred and we performed an interim quantitative impairment test as of March 31, 2020. Based upon the results of the impairment test, we recognized a goodwill impairment charge of $14,773 million during the first quarter of 2020. There have been no other goodwill impairments during 2020.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 34
Restructuring, Impairment and Other
In 2020, we recognized $1,866 million in restructuring, impairment and other charges, compared to $342 million in 2019. These charges primarily relate to the restructuring plan announced in the first quarter of 2020, which include product line rationalization actions, headcount reductions in certain geographical locations, and other initiatives to right-size our operations for anticipated activity levels and market conditions.
Separation and Merger Related
We recorded $134 million of separation related costs in 2020, a decrease of $50 million from the prior year. Costs in 2020 relate to the ongoing activities for the separation from GE including costs for the build-out of certain information technology infrastructures as a result of the separation.
Other Non-Operating Income /(Loss), Net
In 2020, we recorded $1,040 million of other net non-operating income. Included in this amount is an unrealized gain of $1,417 million related to marking our investment in C3.ai to fair value, partially offset by losses of $353 million for the sale of our Rod Lift Systems business in OFS and the sale of our Surface Pressure Control Flow business in OFE.
Interest Expense, Net
In 2020, we incurred net interest expense of $264 million, an increase of $27 million from the prior year, primarily driven by lower interest income.
In 2020, our income tax expense was $559 million, an increase of $77 million, from $482 million in 2019. The increase was primarily due to valuation allowances on deferred tax assets and the geographical mix of earnings, partially offset by the benefit of the U.S. Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act).
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the CARES Act was enacted on March 27, 2020 in the U.S., and includes measures to assist companies, including allowing net operating losses originating in 2018, 2019, or 2020 to be carried back up to five years. During 2020, we elected to carry back losses to 2014 and accordingly recognized a tax benefit of $117 million and we expect to receive a cash refund of the same amount.
We, in the conduct of all of our activities, are committed to maintaining the core values of our Company, as well as high safety, ethical, and quality standards as also reported in our Quality Management System (QMS). We believe such a commitment is integral to running a sound, successful, and sustainable business. We devote significant resources to maintain a comprehensive global ethics and compliance program (Compliance Program) which is designed to prevent, detect, and appropriately respond to any potential violations of the law, the Code of Conduct, and other Company policies and procedures.
Highlights of our Compliance Program include the following:
•Comprehensive internal policies over such areas as anti-bribery; travel, entertainment, gifts and charitable donations to government officials and other parties; payments to commercial sales representatives; and, the use of non-U.S. police or military organizations for security purposes. In addition, there are policies and procedures to address customs requirements, visa processing risks, export and re-export controls, economic sanctions, anti-money laundering and anti-boycott laws.
•Global and independent structure of Chief Compliance Officer and other compliance professionals providing compliance advice, customized training and governance, as well as investigating concerns across all regions and countries where we do business.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 35
•Comprehensive employee compliance training program that combines instructor-led and web-based training modules tailored to the key risks that employees face on an ongoing basis.
•Due diligence procedures for third parties who conduct business on our behalf, including channel partners (sales representatives, distributors, resellers), administrative service providers, as well as an enhanced risk-based process for classifying channel partners and suppliers.
•Due diligence procedures for merger and acquisition activities.
•Specifically tailored compliance risk assessments and audits focused on country and third party risk.
•Compliance Review Board comprised of senior officers of the Company that meets quarterly to monitor effectiveness of the Compliance Program, as well as product company and regional compliance committees that meet quarterly.
•Technology to monitor and report on compliance matters, including an internal investigations management system, a web-based anti-boycott reporting tool, global trade management systems and comprehensive watch list screening.
•Data privacy compliance policies and procedures to ensure compliance with applicable data privacy requirements.
•A compliance program designed to create an “Open Reporting Environment” where employees are encouraged to report any ethics or compliance matter without fear of retaliation, including a global network of trained employee ombudspersons, and a worldwide, 24-hour business helpline operated by a third party and available in approximately 200 languages.
•Centralized finance organization with company-wide policies.
•Anti-corruption audits of high-risk countries, as well as risk-based compliance audits of third parties.
•We have region-specific processes and procedures for management of HR related issues, including pre-hire screening of employees; a process to screen existing employees prior to promotion into select roles where they may be exposed to finance and/or corruption-related risks; and implementation of a global new hire compliance training module for all employees.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Our objective in financing our business is to maintain sufficient liquidity, adequate financial resources, and financial flexibility in order to fund the requirements of our business. Despite the challenging dynamics during 2020, we continue to maintain solid financial strength and liquidity. At December 31, 2020, we had cash and cash equivalents of $4.1 billion compared to $3.2 billion at December 31, 2019. Our liquidity is further supported by a revolving credit facility of $3 billion, and access to both commercial paper and uncommitted lines of credit. At December 31, 2020, we had no borrowings outstanding under the revolving credit facility or our uncommitted lines of credit, and had £600 million ($801 million) commercial paper outstanding. Our next debt maturity is December 2022.
Cash and cash equivalents includes $44 million and $162 million of cash held on behalf of GE at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Excluding cash held on behalf of GE, our U.S. subsidiaries held approximately $1 billion and $0.4 billion while our foreign subsidiaries held approximately $3.1 billion and $2.7 billion of our cash and cash equivalents as at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. A substantial portion of the cash held by foreign subsidiaries at December 31, 2020 has been reinvested in active non-U.S. business operations. If we decide at a later date to repatriate those funds to the U.S., they will generally be free of U.S. federal tax but may incur other taxes such as withholding or state taxes.
We have a $3 billion committed unsecured revolving credit facility (the 2019 Credit Agreement) with commercial banks maturing in December 2024. The 2019 Credit Agreement contains certain customary representations and
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 36
warranties, certain customary affirmative covenants and certain customary negative covenants. Upon the occurrence of certain events of default, our obligations under the 2019 Credit Agreement may be accelerated. Such events of default include payment defaults to lenders under the 2019 Credit Agreement and other customary defaults. No such events of default have occurred. We have no borrowings under the 2019 Credit Agreement.
In addition, we have a commercial paper program under which we may issue from time to time commercial paper with maturities of no more than 397 days. During the second quarter of 2020, we established a £600 million commercial paper facility under which the Bank of England may invest through the COVID Corporate Financing Facility (the Program), which increased our total commercial paper program from $3.0 billion to approximately $3.8 billion. In May 2020, we issued £600 million of commercial paper under the Program that matures in April 2021 and can be repaid prior to that with no additional cost.
Certain Senior Notes contain covenants that restrict our ability to take certain actions. See "Note 10. Borrowings" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report for further details. At December 31, 2020, we were in compliance with all debt covenants.
We continuously review our liquidity and capital resources. If market conditions were to change, for instance due to the uncertainty created by the COVID-19 pandemic or a significant decline in oil and gas prices, and our revenue was reduced significantly or operating costs were to increase significantly, our cash flows and liquidity could be negatively impacted. Additionally, it could cause the rating agencies to lower our credit ratings. There are no ratings triggers that would accelerate the maturity of any borrowings under our committed credit facility; however, a downgrade in our credit ratings could increase the cost of borrowings under the credit facility and could also limit or preclude our ability to issue commercial paper. Should this occur, we could seek alternative sources of funding, including borrowing under the credit facility.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, we dispersed cash to fund a variety of activities including certain working capital needs, restructuring and GE separation related costs, capital expenditures, the payment of dividends, and distributions to noncontrolling interests. We believe that cash on hand, cash flows generated from operating and financing activities, and the available credit facility will provide sufficient liquidity to manage our global cash needs.
Cash flows provided by (used in) each type of activity were as follows for the years ended December 31:
|Operating activities||$||1,304 ||$||2,126 |
|Financing activities||225 ||(1,534)|
Fiscal Year 2020 to Fiscal Year 2019
Our largest source of operating cash is payments from customers, of which the largest component is collecting cash related to our sales of products and services including advance payments or progress collections for work to be performed. The primary use of operating cash is to pay our suppliers, employees, tax authorities and others for a wide range of goods and services.
Cash flows from operating activities generated cash of $1,304 million and $2,126 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2020, cash generated from operating activities were primarily driven by net losses adjusted for certain noncash items (primarily depreciation, amortization, impairments, loss on sale of businesses, and the unrealized gain on an equity security) and working capital, which includes contract and other deferred assets.
Working capital generated $216 million of cash in 2020 primarily due to receivables and positive progress collections partially offset by accounts payable, as we continue to improve our working capital processes. In 2019,
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 37
working capital generated $553 million of cash primarily due to net positive progress collections and receivables in TPS for equipment contracts. Included in our cash flows from operating activities for 2020 and 2019 are payments of $670 million and $307 million, respectively, made primarily for employee severance as a result of our restructuring activities and separation-related costs including the build-out of information technology infrastructure as a result of GE separation activities.
Cash flows from investing activities used cash of $618 million and $1,045 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Our principal recurring investing activity is the funding of capital expenditures to ensure that we have the appropriate levels and types of machinery and equipment in place to generate revenue from operations. Expenditures for capital assets totaled $974 million and $1,240 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, partially offset by cash flows from the sale of property, plant and equipment of $187 million and $264 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively. Proceeds from the disposal of assets related primarily to equipment that was lost-in-hole, and to property, machinery and equipment no longer used in operations that was sold throughout the period. In 2020, we received proceeds of $187 million primarily from the sale of our Rod Lift Systems and our Surface Pressure Control Flow businesses. In 2019, we received $77 million from the sale of our high-speed reciprocating compression business.
Cash flows from financing activities generated cash of $225 million and used cash of $1,534 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
We had net repayments of short-term debt of $204 million and $542 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively. We had repayments of our long-term debt of $42 million in 2020 and $570 million in 2019, which was primarily driven by our repayment of certain senior notes.
In 2020, we had proceeds from the issuance of commercial paper of £600 million ($737 million at date of issuance). In addition, we had proceeds from the issuance of $500 million aggregate principal amount of 4.486% Senior Notes due May 2030. We pay interest on the notes each May and November. In 2019, we had proceeds from the issuance of $525 million aggregate principal amount of 3.138% Senior Notes due November 2029. We pay interest on the notes each May and November. We used the proceeds from this offering to repurchase all of our outstanding 3.2% Senior Notes due August 2021.
During 2020, we paid aggregate dividends of $488 million to our Class A stockholders, and BHH LLC made a distribution of $256 million to GE. During 2019, we paid aggregate dividends of $395 million to our Class A stockholders, and BHH LLC made a distribution of $350 million to GE. Additionally, in September 2019, BHH LLC repurchased 11.9 million of its units from GE for a cash consideration of $250 million.
In 2021, we believe cash on hand, cash flows from operating activities, the available revolving credit facility, and availability under our existing shelf registrations of debt will provide us with sufficient capital resources and liquidity to manage our working capital needs, meet contractual obligations, fund capital expenditures and dividends, and support the development of our short-term and long-term operating strategies. When necessary, we issue commercial paper or other short-term debt to fund cash needs in the U.S. in excess of the cash generated in the U.S.
Our capital expenditures can be adjusted and managed by us to match market demand and activity levels. Based on current market conditions, capital expenditures, net of proceeds from disposal of assets, in 2021 are expected to be below 2020 levels. The expenditures are expected to be used primarily for normal, recurring items necessary to support our business. We also anticipate making income tax payments in the range of $350 million to $450 million in 2021.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 38
In the table below, we set forth our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2020. Certain amounts included in this table are based on our estimates and assumptions about these obligations, including their duration, anticipated actions by third parties and other factors. The contractual obligations we will actually pay in future periods may vary from those reflected in the table because the estimates and assumptions are subjective.
| ||Payments Due by Period|
|(In millions)||Total||Less Than|
|1 - 3|
|4 - 5|
Total debt and finance lease obligations (1)
|$||7,446 ||$||890 ||$||1,261 ||$||175 ||$||5,120 |
Estimated interest payments (2)
|3,582 ||260 ||481 ||435 ||2,406 |
Operating leases (3)
|972 ||235 ||286 ||138 ||313 |
Purchase obligations (4)
|992 ||838 ||123 ||13 ||18 |
|Total||$||12,992 ||$||2,223 ||$||2,151 ||$||761 ||$||7,857 |
(1)Amounts represent the expected cash payments for the principal amounts related to our debt, including finance lease obligations. Amounts for debt do not include any deferred issuance costs or unamortized discounts or premiums including step up in the value of the debt on the acquisition of BHI. Expected cash payments for interest are excluded from these amounts. Total debt and finance lease obligations includes $45 million payable to GE and its affiliates. As there is no fixed payment schedule on the amount payable to GE and its affiliates we have classified it as payable in less than one year.
(2)Amounts represent the expected cash payments for interest on our long-term debt and finance lease obligations.
(3)Amounts represent the future minimum payments under operating leases with initial terms of one year or more. Our lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option.
(4)Purchase obligations include expenditures for capital assets for 2020 as well as agreements to purchase goods or services or licenses that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, including: fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction.
Due to the uncertainty with respect to the timing of potential future cash outflows associated with our uncertain tax positions, we are unable to make reasonable estimates of the period of cash settlement, if any, to the respective taxing authorities. Therefore, $601 million in uncertain tax positions, including interest and penalties, have been excluded from the contractual obligations table above. See "Note 12. Income Taxes" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein for further information.
We have certain defined benefit pension and other post-retirement benefit plans covering certain of our U.S. and international employees. In 2020, we made contributions and paid direct benefits of approximately $39 million in connection with those plans, and we anticipate funding between approximately $30 million to $45 million in 2021. Amounts for pension funding obligations are based on assumptions that are subject to change, therefore, we are currently not able to reasonably estimate our contribution figures after 2021. See "Note 11. Employee Benefit Plans" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein for further information.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
In the normal course of business with customers, vendors and others, we have entered into off-balance sheet arrangements, such as surety bonds for performance, letters of credit and other bank issued guarantees, which totaled approximately $4.1 billion at December 31, 2020. It is not practicable to estimate the fair value of these financial instruments. None of the off-balance sheet arrangements either has, or is likely to have, a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
As of December 31, 2020, we had no material off-balance sheet financing arrangements other than those discussed above. As such, we are not materially exposed to any financing, liquidity, market or credit risk that could arise if we had engaged in such financing arrangements.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 39
Other factors affecting liquidity
Registration Statements: In November 2018, Baker Hughes filed a universal shelf registration statement on Form S-3ASR (Automatic Shelf Registration) with the SEC to have the ability to sell various types of securities including debt securities, Class A common stock, preferred stock, guarantees of debt securities, purchase contracts and units. The specific terms of any securities to be sold would be described in supplemental filings with the SEC. The registration statement will expire in 2021.
In December 2020, BHH LLC, Baker Hughes Netherlands Funding Company B.V., and Baker Hughes Co-Obligor, Inc. filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC to have the ability to sell up to $3 billion in debt securities in amounts to be determined at the time of an offering. Any such offering, if it does occur, may happen in one or more transactions. The specific terms of any debt securities to be sold would be described in supplemental filings with the SEC. The registration statement will expire in December 2023.
Customer receivables: In line with industry practice, we may bill our customers for services provided in arrears dependent upon contractual terms. In a challenging economic environment, we may experience delays in the payment of our invoices due to customers' lower cash flow from operations or their more limited access to credit markets. While historically there have not been material non-payment events, we attempt to mitigate this risk through working with our customers to restructure their debts. A customer's failure or delay in payment could have a material adverse effect on our short-term liquidity and results from operations. As of December 31, 2020, 16% of our gross trade receivables were from customers in the U.S. Other than the U.S., no other country or single customer accounted for more than 10% of our gross trade receivables at this date. As of December 31, 2019, 19% of our gross trade receivables were from customers in the U.S.
International operations: Our cash that is held outside the U.S. is 76% of the total cash balance as of December 31, 2020. We may not be able to use this cash quickly and efficiently due to exchange or cash controls that could make it challenging. As a result, our cash balance may not represent our ability to quickly and efficiently use this cash.
Supply chain finance programs: Under supply chain finance programs, administered by a third party, our suppliers are given the opportunity to sell receivables from us to participating financial institutions at their sole discretion at a rate that leverages our credit rating and thus might be more beneficial to our suppliers. Our responsibility is limited to making payment on the terms originally negotiated with our supplier, regardless of whether the supplier sells its receivable to a financial institution. The range of payment terms we negotiate with our suppliers is consistent, irrespective of whether a supplier participates in the program. These liabilities continue to be presented as accounts payable in our condensed consolidated statements of financial position and reflected as cash flow from operating activities when settled. We do not believe that changes in the availability of supply chain financing programs would have a material impact on our liquidity.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
Accounting estimates and assumptions discussed in this section are those considered to be the most critical to an understanding of our financial statements because they involve significant judgments and uncertainties. Many of these estimates include determining fair value. These estimates reflect our best judgment about current, and for some estimates future, economic and market conditions and their potential effects based on information available as of the date of these financial statements. If these conditions change from those expected, it is reasonably possible that the judgments and estimates described below could change, which may result in future impairments of goodwill, intangibles and long-lived assets, increases in reserves for contingencies, establishment of valuation allowances on deferred tax assets and increased tax liabilities, among other effects. Also, see "Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein, which discusses our most significant accounting policies.
We have defined a critical accounting estimate as one that is both important to the portrayal of either our financial condition or results of operations and requires us to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments or estimates about matters that are uncertain. The Audit Committee of our Board of Directors has reviewed our critical accounting estimates and the disclosure presented below. During the past three fiscal years, we have not made any material changes in the methodology used to establish the critical accounting estimates, and we believe that the
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 40
following are the critical accounting estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. There are other items within our consolidated financial statements that require estimation and judgment but they are not deemed critical as defined above.
Revenue Recognition on Long-Term Product Services Agreements
We have long-term service agreements with our customers predominately within our TPS segment. These agreements typically require us to maintain assets sold to the customer over a defined contract term. These agreements have average contract terms of greater than 10 years. From time to time, these contract terms may be extended through contract modifications or amendments, which may result in revisions to future billing and cost estimates. Revenue recognition on long-term product services agreements requires estimates of both customer payments and the costs to perform required maintenance services over the contract term. We recognize revenue on an overtime basis using input method to measure our progress toward completion at the estimated margin rate of the contract.
To develop our billings estimates, we consider the number of billable events that will occur based on estimated utilization of the asset under contract, over the life of the contract term. This estimated utilization will consider both historical and market conditions, asset retirements and new product introductions, if applicable.
To develop our cost estimates, we consider the timing and extent of maintenance and overhaul events, including the amount and cost of labor, spare parts and other resources required to perform the services. In developing our cost estimates, we utilize a combination of our historical cost experience and expected cost improvements. Cost improvements are only included in future cost estimates after savings have been observed in actual results or proven effective through an extensive regulatory or engineering approval process.
We routinely review the estimates used in our product services agreements and regularly revise them to adjust for changes. These revisions are based on objectively verifiable information that is available at the time of the review.
The difference between the timing of our revenue recognition and cash received from our customers results in either a contract asset (revenue in excess of billings) or a contract liability (billings in excess of revenue). See "Note 7. Contract and Other Deferred Assets" and "Note 8. Progress Collections and Deferred Income" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein for further information.
We regularly assess customer credit risk inherent in the carrying amounts of receivables and contract assets and estimated earnings, including the risk that contractual penalties may not be sufficient to offset our accumulated investment in the event of customer termination. We gain insight into expected future utilization and cost trends, as well as credit risk, through our knowledge of the equipment installed and the close interaction with our customers through supplying critical services and parts over extended periods. Revisions to cost or billing estimates may affect a product services agreement’s total estimated profitability resulting in an adjustment of earnings; such adjustments generated earnings of $17 million, $(1) million and $26 million for the three years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We provide for probable losses when they become evident.
On December 31, 2020, our long-term product service agreements, net of related billings in excess of revenues, of $0.3 billion, represent approximately 2.9% of our total estimated life of contract billings of $11.2 billion. Cash billings collected on these contracts were approximately $0.6 billion during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. Our contracts (on average) are approximately 18% complete based on costs incurred to date and our estimate of future costs. Revisions to our estimates of future revenue or costs that increase or decrease total estimated contract profitability by 1% would increase or decrease the long-term product service agreements balance by $0.04 billion.
Goodwill and Other Identified Intangible Assets
We perform an annual impairment test of goodwill on a qualitative or quantitative basis for each of our reporting units as of July 1, or more frequently when circumstances indicate an impairment may exist at the reporting unit level. The process of evaluating the potential impairment of goodwill is highly subjective and requires significant judgment. When performing the annual impairment test we have the option of first performing a qualitative
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 41
assessment to determine the existence of events and circumstances that would lead to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If such a conclusion is reached, we would then be required to perform a quantitative impairment assessment of goodwill. However, if the assessment leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is greater than its carrying amount, then no further assessments are required. A quantitative assessment for the determination of impairment is made by comparing the carrying amount of each reporting unit with its fair value, which is generally calculated using a combination of market, comparable transaction and discounted cash flow approaches. We assess the valuation methodology based upon the relevance and availability of the data at the time the valuation is performed.
Pension benefits are calculated using significant inputs to the actuarial models that measure pension benefit obligations and related effects on operations. Two assumptions, discount rate and expected return on assets, are important elements of plan expense and asset/liability measurement. We evaluate these critical assumptions at least annually on a plan and country specific basis. We periodically evaluate other assumptions involving demographic factors such as retirement age, mortality and turnover, and update them to reflect its experience and expectations for the future. Actual results in any given year will often differ from actuarial assumptions because of economic and other factors.
Projected benefit obligations are measured as the present value of expected payments discounted using the weighted average of market observed yields for high quality fixed income securities with maturities that correspond to the payment of benefits, lower discount rates increase present values and subsequent year pension expense and higher discount rates decrease present values and subsequent year pension expense. The discount rates used to determine the benefit obligations for our principal pension plans at December 31, 2020 and 2019 were 1.66% and 2.34%, respectively, reflecting market interest rates. Our expected return on assets at December 31, 2020 and 2019 was 4.20% and 5.48%, respectively.
We operate in more than 120 countries and our effective tax rate is based on our income, statutory tax rates, and differences between tax laws and the U.S. GAAP in these various jurisdictions. Tax laws are complex and subject to different interpretations by the taxpayer and respective governmental taxing authorities. This rate is further impacted by the extent earnings are indefinitely reinvested as repatriation of these foreign earnings would incur other additional taxes such as withholding and income taxes. Indefinite reinvestment is determined by management’s judgment and intentions concerning the future operations of the Company. In cases where repatriation would otherwise incur significant withholding or income taxes, these foreign earnings have been indefinitely reinvested in active non-U.S. business operations. Computation of the potential deferred tax liability associated with these undistributed earnings and any other basis differences is not practicable.
Deferred income tax assets represent amounts available to reduce income taxes payable in future years. We evaluate the recoverability of these future tax deductions and credits by assessing the adequacy of future taxable income from all sources, including reversal of taxable temporary differences, forecasted operating earnings and available tax planning strategies. These sources of income rely heavily on estimates. We use our historical experience and short and long range business forecasts to provide insight. We record a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Our tax filings routinely are subject to audit by the tax authorities in the jurisdictions where we conduct business. These audits may result in assessments of additional taxes that are resolved with the tax authorities or through the courts. We have provided for the amounts we believe will ultimately result from these proceedings, but settlements of issues raised in these audits may affect our tax rate. We have $483 million of gross unrecognized tax benefits, excluding interest and penalties, at December 31, 2020. We are not able to reasonably estimate in which future periods these amounts ultimately will be settled.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 42
Other Loss Contingencies
Other loss contingencies are uncertain and unresolved matters that arise in the ordinary course of business and result from events or actions by others that have the potential to result in a future loss. Such contingencies include, but are not limited to, environmental obligations, litigation, regulatory proceedings, product quality, and losses resulting from other events and developments.
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosures as well as disclosures about any contingent assets and liabilities. We base these estimates and judgments on historical experience and other assumptions and information that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Estimates and assumptions about future events and their effects are subject to uncertainty and, accordingly, these estimates may change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired, as additional information is obtained and as the business environment in which we operate changes.
Allowance for Credit Losses
The estimation of anticipated credit losses that may be incurred as we work through the invoice collection process with our customers requires us to make judgments and estimates regarding our customers' ability to pay amounts due to us. We monitor our customers' payment history and current credit worthiness to determine that collectability is reasonably assured. We also consider the overall business climate in which our customers operate. For accounts receivable, a loss allowance matrix is utilized to measure lifetime expected credit losses. The matrix contemplates historical credit losses by age of receivables, adjusted for any forward-looking information and management expectations. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the allowance for credit losses totaled $373 million and $323 million of total gross accounts receivable, respectively. We believe that our allowance for credit losses is adequate to cover the anticipated credit losses under current conditions; however, uncertainties regarding changes in the financial condition of our customers, either adverse or positive, could impact the amount and timing of any additional credit losses that may be required.
Inventory is a significant component of current assets and is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. This requires us to record provisions and maintain reserves for excess, slow moving, and obsolete inventory. To determine these reserve amounts, we regularly review inventory quantities on hand and compare them to estimates of future product demand, market conditions, production requirements, and technological developments. These estimates and forecasts inherently include uncertainties and require us to make judgments regarding potential future outcomes. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, inventory reserves totaled $421 million and $429 million of gross inventory, respectively. We believe that our reserves are adequate to properly value potential excess, slow moving, and obsolete inventory under current conditions. Significant or unanticipated changes to our estimates and forecasts could impact the amount and timing of any additional provisions for excess, slow moving or obsolete inventory that may be required.
NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS TO BE ADOPTED
See "Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein for further discussion of accounting standards to be adopted.
RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
See "Note 18. Related Party Transactions" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein for further discussion of related party transactions.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 43
This Form 10-K, including MD&A and certain statements in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (each a "forward-looking statement"). Forward-looking statements concern future circumstances and results and other statements that are not historical facts and are sometimes identified by the words "may," "will," "should," "potential," "intend," "expect," "endeavor," "seek," "anticipate," "estimate," "overestimate," "underestimate," "believe," "could," "project," "predict," "continue," "target" or other similar words or expressions. Forward-looking statements are based upon current plans, estimates and expectations that are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those indicated or anticipated by such forward-looking statements. The inclusion of such statements should not be regarded as a representation that such plans, estimates or expectations will be achieved. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from such plans, estimates or expectations include, among others, the risk factors in the "Risk Factors" section of Part 1 of Item 1A of this Form 10-K and those set forth from time-to-time in other filings by the Company with the SEC. These documents are available through our website or through the SEC's Electronic Data Gathering and Analysis Retrieval (EDGAR) system at http://www.sec.gov.
In light of such risks and uncertainties, we caution you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this annual report, or if earlier, as of the date they were made. We do not intend to, and disclaim any obligation to, update or revise any forward-looking statements unless required by securities law.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to certain market risks that are inherent in our financial instruments and arise from changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates. We may enter into derivative financial instrument transactions to manage or reduce market risk but do not enter into derivative financial instrument transactions for speculative purposes. A discussion of our primary market risk exposure in financial instruments is presented below.
INTEREST RATE RISK
All of our long-term debt is comprised of fixed rate instruments. We are subject to interest rate risk on our debt and investment portfolio. We may use interest rate swaps to manage the economic effect of fixed rate obligations associated with certain debt. There were no outstanding interest rate swap agreements as of December 31, 2020. The following table sets forth our fixed rate long-term debt, excluding finance leases, and the related weighted average interest rates by expected maturity dates.
|As of December 31, 2020|
Long-term debt (1)
|$||— ||$||1,250 ||$||— ||$||107 ||$||— ||$||5,106 ||$||6,463 |
Weighted average interest rates
|— ||%||2.88 ||%||— ||%||4.06 ||%||— ||%||3.89 ||%||3.71 ||%|
(1)Fair market value of our fixed rate long-term debt, excluding finance leases, was $7.5 billion at December 31, 2020.
(2)Amounts represent the principal value of our long-term debt outstanding and related weighted average interest rates at the end of the respective period.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 44
FOREIGN CURRENCY EXCHANGE RISK
We conduct our operations around the world in a number of different currencies, and we are exposed to market risks resulting from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. Many of our significant foreign subsidiaries have designated the local currency as their functional currency. As such, future earnings are subject to change due to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates when transactions are denominated in currencies other than our functional currencies.
Additionally, we buy, manufacture and sell components and products across global markets. These activities expose us to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices and interest rates which can adversely affect revenue earned and costs of our operating businesses. When the currency in which equipment is sold differs from the primary currency of the legal entity and the exchange rate fluctuates, it will affect the revenue earned on the sale. These sales and purchase transactions also create receivables and payables denominated in foreign currencies and exposure to foreign currency gains and losses based on changes in exchange rates. Changes in the price of raw materials used in manufacturing can affect the cost of manufacturing. We use derivatives to mitigate or eliminate these exposures, where appropriate.
We use cash flow hedging primarily to reduce or eliminate the effects of foreign currency exchange rate changes on purchase and sale contracts. Accordingly, most derivative activity in this category consists of currency exchange contracts. We had outstanding foreign currency forward contracts with notional amounts aggregating $6.8 billion and $5.3 billion to hedge exposure to currency fluctuations in various foreign currencies at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The notional amount of these derivative instruments do not generally represent cash amounts exchanged by us and the counterparties, but rather the nominal amount upon which changes in the value of the derivatives are measured.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company estimates that a 1% appreciation or depreciation in the U.S. dollar would result in an impact of less than $5 million to our pre-tax earnings, however, the Company is generally able to mitigate its foreign exchange exposure, where there are liquid financial markets, through use of foreign currency derivative transactions. Also, see "Note 16. Financial Instruments" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein, which has additional details on our strategy.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 45
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Management's Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over our financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f). Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the 2013 framework in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on our assessment, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2020. This conclusion is based on the recognition that there are inherent limitations in all systems of internal control. Because of the inherent limitations of internal control over financial reporting, including the possibility of collusion or improper management override of controls, material misstatements due to error or fraud may not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
KPMG LLP, the Company's independent registered public accounting firm, has issued an attestation report on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
/s/ LORENZO SIMONELLI
Chairman, President and
Chief Executive Officer
/s/ BRIAN WORRELL
Chief Financial Officer
/s/ KURT CAMILLERI
Senior Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer
February 25, 2021
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 46
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
Baker Hughes Company:
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of financial position of Baker Hughes Company and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of income (loss), comprehensive income (loss), changes in equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, and our report dated February 25, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
Revenue recognition on certain agreements for sales of new products manufactured to unique customer specifications
As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company enters into agreements for sales of goods manufactured to unique customer specifications on an over time basis. Revenue from these types of contracts is recognized to the extent of progress towards completion measured by actual costs incurred relative to total expected costs. The Company provides for potential losses on these types of contracts when it is probable that a loss will be incurred.
We identified revenue recognition for certain agreements for sales of new products as a critical audit matter. Complex auditor judgment was required in evaluating the Company's long-term estimates of the expected direct material costs to be incurred in order to complete these agreements.
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 47
The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls related to the Company’s revenue recognition process for sales of new products. This included controls pertaining to the Company's estimation of direct material costs expected to be incurred to complete agreements for sales of new products. We evaluated the Company's ability to accurately estimate direct material costs expected to be incurred to complete the agreements for sales of new products. We evaluated the estimated direct material costs expected to be incurred to complete the new products for the agreements by:
–questioning the Company's finance and project managers regarding progress to date based on the latest project reports and the costs expected to still be incurred until completion;
–observing project review meetings performed by the Company or inspecting relevant minutes of those meetings to identify changes in the estimated costs expected to be incurred to complete the contract and related contract margins;
–investigating changes to the contract margin when compared to the prior year's estimated contract margin; and
–evaluating the estimated direct material costs to be incurred by obtaining supplier cost estimates and considering changes to those estimates during the year
Goodwill impairment in the Oilfield Services reporting unit
As discussed in Notes 1 and 6 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company has four reporting units which are monitored for impairment on the basis of market conditions. The Company performs an impairment test on goodwill on an annual basis for each of its reporting units as of July 1, or more frequently when circumstances indicate that an impairment indicator exists at the reporting unit level. Potential impairment indicators include the results of the most recent annual impairment testing, downward revisions to internal forecasts, declines in market capitalization below book value, and the magnitude and duration of those declines, if any. The Company identified impairment indicators and therefore performed an interim quantitative impairment test comparing the fair value of each of its reporting units to its carrying value as of March 31, 2020. Based on the results of the quantitative impairment test as of March 31, 2020, the Company concluded that the carrying value of the Oilfield Services reporting unit exceeded its estimated fair value and recorded a goodwill impairment charge in the amount of $11,484 million associated with the Oilfield Services reporting unit. The goodwill balance as of December 31, 2020 was $5,977 million, of which $1,539 million was related to the Oilfield Services reporting unit. Projected revenue, projected operating profit, and the discount rate are elements of the estimated future cash flows used by the Company in determining the fair value of each of the reporting units.
We identified the evaluation of the goodwill impairment analysis for the Oilfield Services reporting unit as a critical audit matter. Specifically, the evaluation of projected revenue and projected operating profit required the application of subjective auditor judgment because these projections involve assumptions about future events. In addition, changes to the discount rate assumptions may have a significant effect on the Company’s assessment of the carrying value of the goodwill of the reporting unit.
The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls related to the goodwill impairment process. This included controls relating to management’s goodwill impairment test, the development of projected financial information and the discount rate, and management’s review of the projections. We evaluated the projected revenue and projected operating profit assumptions by comparing the projected amounts to (1) the past performance of the reporting unit, including historical actual results, and (2) relevant industry benchmark data related to future events. We also considered evidence obtained in other areas of the audit. We evaluated the Company’s ability to accurately prepare projections by comparing the projected revenues and projected operating profit to actual results for the period. In addition, we involved valuation professionals with specialized skills and knowledge, who assisted in evaluating the discount rate used by comparing it against a discount rate range that was independently developed using publicly available market data for comparable entities.
/s/ KPMG LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2017.
February 25, 2021
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 48
REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
Baker Hughes Company:
Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Baker Hughes Company and subsidiaries’ (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated statements of financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of income (loss), comprehensive income (loss), changes in equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements), and our report dated February 25, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ KPMG LLP
February 25, 2021
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 49
BAKER HUGHES COMPANY
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (LOSS)
|Year Ended December 31,|
|(In millions, except per share amounts)||2020||2019||2018|
|Sales of goods||$||12,846 ||$||13,689 ||$||13,113 |
|Sales of services||7,859 ||10,149 ||9,764 |
|Total revenue||20,705 ||23,838 ||22,877 |
|Costs and expenses:|
|Cost of goods sold||11,383 ||11,798 ||11,524 |
|Cost of services sold||6,123 ||7,608 ||7,367 |
|Selling, general and administrative||2,404 ||2,832 ||2,699 |
|Goodwill impairment||14,773 ||— ||— |
|Restructuring, impairment and other||1,866 ||342 ||433 |
|Separation and merger related||134 ||184 ||153 |
|Total costs and expenses||36,683 ||22,764 ||22,176 |
|Operating income (loss)||(15,978)||1,074 ||701 |
|Other non-operating income (loss), net||1,040 ||(84)||202 |
|Interest expense, net||(264)||(237)||(223)|
|Income (loss) before income taxes and equity in loss of affiliate||(15,202)||753 ||680 |
|Equity in loss of affiliate||— ||— ||(139)|
|Provision for income taxes||(559)||(482)||(258)|
|Net income (loss)||(15,761)||271 ||283 |
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests
|(5,821)||143 ||88 |
|Net income (loss) attributable to Baker Hughes Company||$||(9,940)||$||128 ||$||195 |
|Per share amounts:|
|Basic income (loss) per Class A common share ||$||(14.73)||$||0.23 ||$||0.46 |
|Diluted income (loss) per Class A common share||$||(14.73)||$||0.23 ||$||0.45 |
|Cash dividend per Class A common share||$||0.72 ||$||0.72 ||$||0.72 |
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 50
BAKER HUGHES COMPANY
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Net income (loss)||$||(15,761)||$||271 ||$||283 |
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests
|(5,821)||143 ||88 |
|Net income (loss) attributable to Baker Hughes Company||(9,940)||128 ||195 |
|Other comprehensive income (loss):|
Foreign currency translation adjustments
|175 ||53 ||(502)|
Cash flow hedges
|Other comprehensive income (loss)||43 ||(8)||(573)|
|Less: Other comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interests||— ||(1)||(343)|
|Other comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Baker Hughes Company||43 ||(7)||(230)|
|Comprehensive income (loss)||(15,718)||263 ||(290)|
Less: Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests
|Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Baker Hughes Company||$||(9,897)||$||121 ||$||(35)|
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 51
BAKER HUGHES COMPANY
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL POSITION
| ||December 31,|
|(In millions, except par value)||2020||2019|
Cash and cash equivalents (1)
|$||4,132 ||$||3,249 |
|Current receivables, net||5,622 ||6,416 |
|Inventories, net||4,421 ||4,608 |
|All other current assets||2,280 ||949 |
|Total current assets||16,455 ||15,222 |
|Property, plant and equipment, less accumulated depreciation||5,358 ||6,240 |
|Goodwill||5,977 ||20,690 |
|Other intangible assets, net||4,397 ||5,381 |
|Contract and other deferred assets||2,001 ||1,881 |
|All other assets||2,866 ||3,001 |
|Deferred income taxes||953 ||954 |
Total assets (1)
|$||38,007 ||$||53,369 |
|LIABILITIES AND EQUITY|
|Accounts payable||$||3,532 ||$||4,268 |
Short-term debt and current portion of long-term debt (1)
|889 ||321 |
|Progress collections and deferred income||3,454 ||2,870 |
|All other current liabilities||2,352 ||2,555 |
|Total current liabilities||10,227 ||10,014 |
|Long-term debt||6,744 ||6,301 |
|Deferred income taxes||186 ||51 |
|Liabilities for pensions and other employee benefits||1,217 ||1,079 |
|All other liabilities||1,391 ||1,425 |
Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value - 2,000 authorized, 724 and 650 issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively
|— ||— |
Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value - 1,250 authorized, 311 and 377 issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively
|— ||— |
|Capital in excess of par value||24,613 ||23,565 |
|Retained loss||(9,942)||— |
|Accumulated other comprehensive loss||(1,778)||(1,636)|
|Baker Hughes Company equity||12,893 ||21,929 |
|Noncontrolling interests||5,349 ||12,570 |
|Total equity||18,242 ||34,499 |
|Total liabilities and equity||$||38,007 ||$||53,369 |
(1)Total assets include $45 million and $273 million of assets held on behalf of GE, of which $44 million and $162 million is cash and cash equivalents and $1 million and $111 million is investment securities at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and a corresponding amount of liability is reported in short-term borrowings. See "Note 18. Related Party Transactions" for further details.
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Baker Hughes Company 2020 FORM 10-K | 52
BAKER HUGHES COMPANY
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
(In millions, except per share amounts)
|Class A and Class B Common Stock||Capital in Excess of Par Value||Retained Earnings (Loss)||Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss||Non-controlling Interests||Total|
|Balance at December 31, 2017||— ||$||15,083 ||$||(103)||$||(703)||$||24,133 ||$||38,410 |
|Effect of adoption of ASU 2016-16 on taxes||25 ||42 ||67 |
|Comprehensive income (loss):|
|Net income||195 ||88 ||283 |
|Other comprehensive loss||(230)||(343)||(573)|
Dividends on Class A Common Stock ($0.72 per share)
|Distributions to GE||(495)||(495)|
|Effect of exchange of Class B common stock and associated BHH LLC Units for Class A common stock||3,638 ||(230)||(3,408)||— |
|Repurchase and cancellation of Class B common stock and associated BHH LLC Units||405 ||(52)||(2,440)||(2,087)|
|Repurchase and cancellation of Class A common stock||(374)||(374)|
|Stock-based compensation cost||121 ||121 |
|Balance at December 31, 2018||— ||18,659 ||25 ||(1,219)||17,548 ||35,013 |
|Comprehensive income (loss):|
|Net income||128 ||143 ||271 |
|Other comprehensive loss||(7)||(1)||(8)|
Dividends on Class A Common Stock ($