SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2022
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 1-09397
|Baker Hughes Holdings LLC|
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (713) 439-8600
|(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
|17021 Aldine Westfield Road|
|(Address of principal executive offices)||(Zip Code)|Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of each class||Trading Symbol||Name of each exchange on which registered|
|5.125% Senior Notes due 2040||-||The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
|Large accelerated filer||☐||Accelerated filer||☐||Non-accelerated filer||☑||Smaller reporting company||☐|
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☑
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D- 1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No ☑
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was [Not Applicable].
As of February 6, 2023, all of the common units of the registrant are held by affiliates of the registrant. None of the common units are publicly traded.
REDUCED DISCLOSURE FORMAT
The registrant meets the conditions set forth in General Instruction 1(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and is therefore filing this report with the reduced disclosure format.
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC
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ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC ("BHH LLC", "the Company", "we", "us", or "our") is an energy technology company with a diversified portfolio of technologies and services that span the energy and industrial value chain. Built on a century of experience and conducting business in over 120 countries, our innovative technologies and services are taking energy forward. The Company was formed in July 2017 as the result of a combination between Baker Hughes Incorporated ("BHI") and the oil and gas business ("GE O&G") of General Electric Company ("GE") ("the Transactions"). In 2020, GE launched a program to fully divest of its ownership in Baker Hughes Company ("Baker Hughes") and BHH LLC over approximately three years. As of December 31, 2022, GE no longer owns our common units ("Units") and Baker Hughes owned directly or indirectly 100% of our Units. As of December 31, 2021, GE owned 11.4% of our Units and Baker Hughes owned directly or indirectly 88.6% of our Units (collectively, "the Members").
OUR VISION & STRATEGY
With the breadth of our portfolio, leading technology, and unique partnership models, we are positioned to deliver outcome-based solutions across the energy and industrial markets. By integrating health, safety & environment ("HSE") into everything we do, we protect our people, our customers, and the environment.
The oil and gas macroeconomic environment continues to be dynamic. We believe the world’s reliance on hydrocarbons will not disappear, and oil and gas will continue to remain relevant in meeting global energy demand. At the same time, the transition to new energy sources is accelerating, with governments and society focused on a long-term goal of net-zero emissions while trying to balance the “energy trilemma” - energy security, sustainability, and affordability - for at least the foreseeable future. We believe the industry is going through a transformation that requires a change in how we work. Irrespective of commodity prices, our customers are focused on reducing both capital and operating expenditures. Our existing and new customers expect new partnership and commercial models and new technology solutions to deliver sustainable productivity improvements and leverage economies of scale, with a lower carbon footprint. That is why our strategy is focused on improving our core competitiveness and delivering higher-productivity solutions today, while positioning to lead the energy transition while solving the energy trilemma.
Our strategy is based on three key pillars:
•Transform the core: We are transforming our current business to improve margins and cash flow, which we are achieving through portfolio rationalization, cost improvements, and new business models.
•Invest for growth: We are driving organic and inorganic growth in high potential segments where we have a strong position, including industrial power and processes, industrial asset management, non-metallics, and chemicals.
•Position for new energy frontiers: We are making strategic investments to drive lower carbon emissions in the energy and industrial sectors, including hydrogen, geothermal, carbon capture, utilization and storage ("CCUS"), and clean power solutions.
We expect to benefit from our strategy in the following ways:
•Scope and scale: We have a global presence and a broad, diversified portfolio. Our products, services, and expertise serve the upstream, midstream/liquefied natural gas ("LNG") and downstream sectors of the oil and gas industry, as well as broader chemical and industrial segments. We deliver through our two operating segments: Oilfield Services & Equipment ("OFSE") and Industrial & Energy Technology ("IET") as discussed below under "Products and Services," and each are among the top four providers for the majority of the product lines in the markets they serve.
•Technology: Our culture is built on a heritage of innovation and invention in research and development, with complementary capabilities. Technology remains a differentiator for us, and a key enabler to drive the efficiency and productivity gains our customers need. We also have a range of technologies that support our customers' efforts to reduce their carbon footprint. We remain committed to investing in our products
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and services to maintain our leadership position across our offerings, including $556 million research and development spend and being granted more than 2,200 patents worldwide in 2022. We also made several strategic acquisitions to strengthen our core technology portfolio, including AccessESP, the BRUSH Power Generation business, Qi2 Elements, and Quest Integrity.
•Energy transition solutions: We are positioned to support our customers' efforts to reduce their carbon footprint with a range of emissions-reduction products and services, which we refer to as "new energy." This includes more efficient power generation and compression technology that reduces carbon emissions, including CCUS, as well as hydrogen technologies. We also have a range of inspection and sensor technologies that can monitor and help reduce flaring and emissions. In 2022, we made strategic investments and acquisitions in emerging energy technologies to advance CCUS, hydrogen, net-zero power and e-fuels with companies such as Mosaic, HIF, NET Power, and Levidian, among others. We also continue to expand our low to zero-carbon solutions capabilities, helping customers to detect, quantify, and reduce emissions more efficiently and accurately, and complementing our existing solutions available today.
•Digital capabilities: We expect to benefit from the emerging demand for artificial intelligence ("AI") based solutions as part of our customers’ digital transformation initiatives. Launched in 2019, our partnership with C3.ai, Inc. ("C3 AI") continues to enable us to deliver AI that is faster, easier, and more scalable to drive outcomes for our customers. In addition, we are delivering existing technology and collaborating on new AI applications specific for oil and gas customers. In addition to enhancing our technology portfolio with new AI applications, we are creating a digital element in our core OFSE product lines, helping them to deliver efficiency, predictability, and a better experience for our customers and ourselves. We have also continued to invest in our industrial asset management capabilities in IET, including the acquisition of ARMS Reliability and an investment in Augury, a machine health technology company, to support our customers’ digital transformation programs across industrial end markets.
In September 2022, we announced a restructuring and reorganization effective October 1, 2022, to create two operating segments focused on different growth profiles and designed to simplify our operations and enhance profitability. These two operating segments are Oilfield Services & Equipment, which integrates our previous segments Oilfield Services and Oilfield Equipment, and Industrial & Energy Technology, which integrates our previous segments Turbomachinery & Process Solutions and Digital Solutions.
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
Our two operating segments are organized based on the nature of our markets and customers and consist of similar products and services and growth profiles. We sell to our customers through direct and indirect channels. Our primary sales channel is through our direct sales force, which has a strong regional focus with local teams close to the customer, who are able to draw support from centers of excellence in each of our major product lines. Our products and services are sold in highly competitive markets and the competitive environment varies by product line. See discussion below by segment.
Oilfield Services & Equipment
The OFSE segment designs and manufactures products and provides related services for onshore and offshore oilfield operations across the lifecycle of an asset, ranging from exploration, appraisal, and development to production, rejuvenation, and decommissioning.
The OFSE segment is organized into four product lines.
•Well Construction focuses on drilling and includes drilling services (directional drilling, logging-while-drilling, surface logging, and remote operations), drill bits (polycrystalline, roller cone, hybrid, and in-bit sensing), and drilling & completions fluids (emulsion-based fluids, water-based fluids, specialty fluids, drill-in fluids, waste management, and completion fluids).
•Completions, Intervention, & Measurements encompasses completions (wellbore construction, upper and lower completions, unconventional multistage completions, intelligent production systems, workover systems, and fishing and through-tubing services), pressure pumping (cementing, production enhancement,
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and coiled tubing and tubular running services), and wireline services (openhole logging services, cased-hole logging services, and perforating and drill stem-testing services).
•Production Solutions spans artificial lift systems (electrical submersible pumping systems, surface pumping systems, rigless deployment systems, and sensors and gauges) and oilfield & industrial chemicals (upstream chemicals, downstream chemicals, and Aquaness wholesale chemicals).
•Subsea & Surface Pressure Systems includes subsea projects and services (subsea trees, controls, manifolds, wellheads, premium casing connectors, installation and commissioning, repairs and maintenance, well intervention, life-of-field solutions, and plug and abandonment), flexible pipe systems (subsea risers, subsea flowlines and jumpers, onshore reinforced thermoplastic pipe, and rehabilitation), and surface pressure control systems (surface trees and wellheads).
These product lines are supported by an OFSE digital group, which joins the segment’s domain expertise with a deep understanding of digital technology to improve operational safety, performance, and sustainability. Reservoir analysis proficiencies are rooted in evaluation technologies, a team of reservoir experts, and software. Together, these capabilities provide customers with a greater understanding of the subsurface, enabling smoother, faster drilling and precise wellbore placement that can lead to improved recovery and project economics. OFSE also provides integrated well services and solutions to plan and execute projects ranging from well construction and production through well abandonment, in addition to integrated services and solutions for the subsea environment.
OFSE customers include large integrated major and super-major oil and natural gas companies; U.S. and international independent oil and natural gas companies; national or state-owned oil companies; engineering, procurement, and construction contractors; geothermal companies; and other oilfield service companies.
OFSE believes that its principal competitive differentiators in the industries and markets it serves are the quality, efficiency, reliability, and availability of its products and services. A continued commitment to service delivery, HSE standards, technical proficiency, and competitive pricing is also a key factor in its success.
OFSE products and services are sold in highly competitive markets, and revenue and earnings are affected by changes in commodity prices; fluctuations in levels of drilling, workover and completion activity in major markets; general economic conditions; foreign currency exchange fluctuations; and governmental regulations. While OFSE may have contracts that include multiple well projects and that may extend over a period ranging from two to four years, its services and products are generally provided on a well-by-well basis. Most contracts cover pricing of the products and services, along with various limitations on liability, but do not necessarily establish an obligation to use OFSE products and services. OFSE competitors include SLB and Halliburton (Well Construction; Completions, Intervention, & Measurements; Production Solutions; Subsea & Surface Pressure Systems); ChampionX (Production Solutions); and TechnipFMC, Aker Solutions, and NOV (Subsea & Surface Pressure Systems).
Industrial & Energy Technology
The IET segment combines a broad array of domain expertise, technologies, and services for industrial and energy customers including on-and offshore, LNG, pipeline and gas storage, refining, petrochemical, distributed gas, flow and process control, and industrial segments such as nuclear, aviation, automotive, marine, food and beverage, mining, cement and utilities. Our solutions unlock the ability to transform, transfer, and transport energy efficiently, while capturing and cutting emissions, solving a fundamental challenge behind the energy transition: reducing environmental impact, while maximizing efficiency, productivity, and reliability.
IET is organized into six product lines - Gas Technology Equipment and Gas Technology Services, collectively referred to as Gas Technology, and Condition Monitoring, Inspection, Pumps Valves & Gears, and PSI & Controls, collectively referred to as Industrial Technology.
Gas Technology is organized into two product lines:
• Gas Technology Equipment designs, manufactures, tests, and installs gas technology solutions that serve the entire gas value chain including offshore, onshore and unconventional, pipeline, LNG, gas storage, and gas distribution. The Gas Technology portfolio includes equipment for mechanical-drive, compression, and power-generation applications. Products include drivers, driven equipment, flow control, and turnkey
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solutions. Drivers are comprised of aero-derivative gas turbines, heavy-duty gas turbines, small- to medium-sized industrial gas turbines, steam turbines, electric motors, and turboexpanders. Driven equipment consists of generators and reciprocating, centrifugal, integrated zero emission compressors. As part of its turnkey solutions, Gas Technology Equipment offers power generation and gas compression modules, waste heat/energy/pressure recovery, energy storage, modularized small and large liquefaction plants, CO2 compression, and storage/use solutions. The portfolio is complemented by solutions designed for chemical, petrochemical, and refinery applications. To meet today’s industry challenges, its proprietary laboratories experiment with new materials, facilitate the adoption of additive manufacturing, and provide combustion and compression innovations by leveraging the most advance mechanical, chemical, and digital techniques.
•Gas Technology Services provides advanced solutions to maintain, repair and innovate the installed Baker Hughes fleet of rotating equipment. It also offers genuine spare parts, specialized field service engineers, and repair capabilities to keep equipment at peak level. As an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), Gas Technology Services is able to optimize customers’ maintenance strategy and costs, and upgrade equipment to maximize efficiency and reliability, reduce emissions, and extend the life of equipment as well as that of the entire operating plant. Through an outcome-based service approach, Gas Technology Services optimizes plant profitability and operations. These capabilities are complemented by the Baker Hughes iCenter which provides a digital collaborative environment to support customer operators with Baker Hughes’ engineering know-how, transforming assets into data driven equipment and connecting them to ensure the highest performance throughout the entire life-cycle of the asset. In addition, the proprietary analytics monitored and analyzed by the Baker Hughes iCenter, automatically process incoming data to predict, detect, prevent deviations and enhance asset performance.
Industrial Technology is organized into four product lines:
•Condition Monitoring includes the Bently Nevada® and System 1® product brands, providing rack-based vibration monitoring equipment and sensors for both power generation and oil and gas operations, as well as industrial applications. The product line also provides integrated asset performance management offering through its acquisition of ARMS Reliability and its investment and alliance with Augury.
•Inspection includes the Waygate Technologies product brand of non-destructive testing technology, software, and services, including industrial radiography, ultrasonic sensors, testing machines and gauges, NDT film, and remote visual inspection. The Inspection product line also includes the Process & Pipeline Services business ("PPS") which provides pre-commissioning and maintenance services to improve throughput and asset integrity for process facilities and pipelines, as well as inline inspection solutions to support pipeline integrity.
•Pumps, Valves and Gears consists of four valve brands, Masoneilan, Consolidated, Becker, Mooney, and digital valve applications that provide durable control and pressure relief safety and reliability in various industrial and critical applications; two gear brands, Lufkin Gears and Allen Gears, that offer high-performance gearing and gear coupling solutions and services for power transmission; and centrifugal and vertical pumps and pump technologies for complex material and demanding pressure requirements. These products have applications in oil and gas, LNG, power generation, critical infrastructure, industrial manufacturing, chemical processing, mining, shipping, and nuclear industries.
•Precision Sensors & Instrumentation (PSI) & Controls includes the Panametrics®, Druck®, and Reuter-Stokes® product brands, which provide instrumentation and sensor-based technologies to better detect and analyze pressure, flow, gas, moisture, radiation, and related conditions. PSI & Controls serve a broad range of industries from oil and gas to aviation, automotive, and nuclear.
In 2022, we created the Climate Technology Solutions (“CTS”) and Industrial Asset Management (“IAM”) organizations which are now part of the IET segment. We believe the creation of these two groups will help accelerate the speed of commercial development across the IET product lines for solutions-based business models throughout our new energy and industrial asset management offerings.
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CTS spans carbon capture, utilization and storage, hydrogen, clean power, and emissions management capabilities to enable energy operators as well as the broader industry, in particular the hard-to-abate sectors, to achieve a reliable, net-zero energy system. CTS is the primary driver of the Company’s new energy orders.
IAM combines sophisticated hardware technologies with enterprise-class software as a service (SaaS) products and analytics to connect industrial assets, providing customers with the data, safety and security needed to optimize operations reliably and efficiently. IAM provides customers the technical capabilities to drive enterprise-wide digital transformation of business processes and to focus on better production outcomes along the energy and industrial processes value chain, using sensors, software as a service solutions and inspection services to connect industrial assets to the industrial internet.
IET customers for Gas Technology product lines are upstream, midstream, and downstream, onshore, and offshore, and small to large scale. Midstream and downstream customers include LNG plants, pipelines, storage facilities, refineries, and a wide range of industrial and engineering, procurement and construction (“EPC”) companies. Products and services for the Industrial Technology product lines are primarily sold in a diversified, fragmented arena to a broad range of customers.
IET believes that its principal competitive factors in the industries and markets it serves are product range coverage, product technology, efficiency, product reliability and quality, availability, project execution and service capabilities, emissions, and price. IET differentiates itself from competitors with its expertise in technology and project management, local presence, and partnerships, to provide fully integrated equipment and services solutions with state-of-art technology from design and manufacture through to operations.
IET competes across a wide range of industries, including oil and gas, power generation, aerospace, and light and heavy industrials. IET competitors for Gas Technology – Equipment product line includes Siemens Energy, Solar (a Caterpillar company), MAN Energy Solutions, and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Our Gas Technology – Services product line competes with independent service providers such as Masaood John Brown, EthosEnergy, Sulzer, MTU, Chromalloy, and Siemens Energy. IET competitors for the pumps, gears and valves product line, include Emerson, Flowserve, Metso Outotec, Sulzer, and IMI. Competitors for the remaining IET product lines include Emerson, Honeywell Process Solutions, Olympus, Schneider Electric, and ABB.
We conduct our business under various types of contracts in the upstream, midstream, and downstream segments, including fixed-fee or turnkey contracts, transactional agreements for products and services, and long-term aftermarket service agreements.
We enjoy stable relationships with many of our customers based on long-term project contracts and master service agreements. Several of those contracts require us to commit to a fixed price based on the customer’s technical specifications with little or no relief available due to changes in circumstances. In some cases, failure to deliver products or perform services within contractual commitments may lead to liquidated damages claims. We seek to mitigate these exposures through close collaboration with our customers.
We strive to negotiate the terms of our customer contracts consistent with what we consider to be industry best practices. Our customers typically indemnify us for certain claims arising from: the injury or death of their employees and often their contractors; the loss of or damage to their facility and equipment, and often that of their contractors; pollution originating from their equipment or facility; and all liabilities related to the well and subsurface operations, including loss or damage to the well or reservoir, loss of well control, fire, explosion, or any uncontrolled flow of oil or gas. Conversely, we typically indemnify our customers for certain claims arising from: the injury or death of our employees and often that of our subcontractors; the loss of or damage to our equipment; and surface pollution originating from our equipment while under our control. Where the above indemnities do not apply or are not consistent with industry best practices, we typically provide a capped indemnity for damages caused to the customer by our negligence and include an overall limitation of liability clause. It is also our general practice to include a limitation of liability for consequential loss, including loss of profits and loss of revenue, in all customer contracts.
Our indemnity structure may not protect us in every case. Certain U.S. states have enacted oil and natural gas specific anti-indemnity statutes that can void the allocation of liability agreed to in a contract. Applicable law or the
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negotiated terms of a customer contract may also limit indemnity obligations in the event of gross negligence or willful misconduct. We sometimes contract with customers that are not the end user of our products. It is our practice to seek to obtain an indemnity from our customer for any end-user claims, but this is not always possible. Similarly, government agencies and other third parties may make claims in respect of which we are not indemnified and for which responsibility is assessed proportionate to fault. We have an established process to review any risk deviations from our standard contracting practices.
The Company maintains a commercial general liability insurance policy program that covers against certain operating hazards, including product liability claims and personal injury claims, as well as certain limited environmental pollution claims for damage to a third party or its property arising out of contact with pollution for which the Company is liable; however, clean up and well control costs are not covered by such program. All of the insurance policies purchased by the Company are subject to deductible and/or self-insured retention amounts for which we are responsible for payment, specific terms, conditions, limitations, and exclusions. There can be no assurance that the nature and amount of Company insurance will be sufficient to fully indemnify us against liabilities related to our business.
ORDERS AND REMAINING PERFORMANCE OBLIGATIONS
Remaining performance obligations, a defined term under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"), are unfilled customer orders for products and product services excluding any purchase order that provides the customer with the ability to cancel or terminate without incurring a substantive penalty, even if the likelihood of cancellation is remote based on historical experience. For product services, an amount is included for the expected life of the contract.
We recognized orders of $26.8 billion, $21.7 billion and $20.7 billion in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We recognized OFSE orders of $14.1 billion, $11.8 billion, and $12.3 billion and IET orders of $12.7 billion, $9.9 billion, and $8.4 billion in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the remaining performance obligations totaled $27.8 billion and $23.6 billion, respectively. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, OFSE remaining performance obligations totaled $2.6 billion and $2.0 billion, and IET remaining performance obligations totaled $25.3 billion and $21.5 billion, respectively.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
We engage in research and development activities directed primarily toward the development of new products, services, technology, and other solutions, as well as the improvement of existing products, services and the design of specialized products to meet specific customer needs. We continue to invest across both operating segments in products to enhance safety, develop capability, improve performance, and reduce costs aligned with our operational strategy. Through our Technology Centers we also invest heavily in fundamental technologies such as materials, additive manufacturing, sensing, artificial intelligence/machine learning and other digital technologies such as computer vision, data science, and edge computing.
In OFSE, we continue to fund a range of formation evaluation capabilities as well as drilling, completions, and production hardware. Also in OFSE, the recent focus has been to expand capability into deeper water, longer offsets and at higher pressures as well as modular designs that allow for simpler and more digitally integrated well and field systems.
In IET, we continue to invest and develop foundational technologies which will enable our journey for the energy transition. Such technologies include advanced materials, advanced manufacturing technologies, novel process technologies, and digital technologies such as advanced sensing & diagnostics, data sciences, and artificial intelligence. Within Gas Technology, we are focusing on our latest generation of gas turbines for energy efficiency and reduced carbon footprint such as our LM9000TM and Nova LTTM products, as well as Allam Cycle turboexpander, CCUS, and hydrogen and geothermal technologies. Within Industrial Technology, we are investing in advanced digital solutions designed to improve the efficiency, reliability, and safety of oil and gas, aerospace, energy, and broader industrial production and operations. This includes our Orbit 60 Bently Nevada product for critical asset monitoring in turbine systems, including wind, hydro, and gas turbines. The IET segment is also enhancing its process and safety valve business bringing new digital applications including analytics to our customers. Investments in Industrial Technology also include technologies to measure, monitor, and minimize
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carbon emissions, new inspection technologies for nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures as well as solutions for industrial asset management.
Our technology, brands and other intellectual property ("IP") rights are important elements of our business. We rely on patent, trademark, copyright, and trade secret laws, as well as non-disclosure and employee invention assignment agreements to protect our IP rights. Many patents and patent applications comprise the Baker Hughes portfolio and are owned by us. Other patents and patent applications applicable to our products and services are licensed to us by GE and, in some cases, third parties. In particular, we have an IP cross-license agreement with GE that allows both parties to have continued and permanent rights to commercially utilize certain IP of the other pursuant to the terms of the agreement. The IP cross-licenses remain in place following GE exiting its ownership position in us. We do not consider any individual patent to be material to our business operations.
We follow a policy of seeking patent and trademark protection in numerous countries and regions throughout the world for products and methods that appear to have commercial significance. We believe that maintenance, protection and enforcement of our patents, trademarks, and related IP rights is central to the conduct of our business, and aggressively pursue protection of our IP rights against infringement, misappropriation, or other violation worldwide as may be necessary to protect our business. Additionally, we consider the quality and timely delivery of our products, the service we provide to our customers, and the technical knowledge and skills of our personnel to be other important components of the portfolio of capabilities and assets supporting our ability to compete.
Our operations can be affected by seasonal events, which can temporarily affect the delivery and performance of our products and services, and our customers' budgetary cycles. Examples of seasonal events that can impact our business are set forth below:
•Adverse weather conditions, such as hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, may interrupt or curtail coastal and offshore drilling, which may impact our operations or our customers’ operations, cause supply disruptions and result in a loss of revenue and damage to our equipment and facilities, which may or may not be insured. Other adverse weather conditions could include extreme heat in the Middle East during the summer months which may impact our operations or our customers' operations.
•The severity and duration of both the summer and the winter in North America can have an impact on activity levels and produce variability throughout the year.
•Severe weather during the winter months normally results in reduced activity levels in the North Sea generally in the first quarter and may interrupt or curtail our operations, or our customers’ operations, in those areas and result in a loss of revenue.
•Many of our international OFSE customers may increase activity for certain products and services in the fourth quarter as they seek to fully utilize their annual budgets.
•Our broader IET businesses typically experience higher customer activity as a result of spending patterns in the second half of the year.
We purchase various raw materials and component parts for use in manufacturing our products and delivering our services. The principal raw materials we use include steel alloys, chromium, nickel, titanium, barite, beryllium, copper, lead, tungsten carbide, synthetic and natural diamonds, gels, sand and other proppants, printed circuit boards and other electronic components, and hydrocarbon-based chemical feed stocks. Raw materials that are essential to our business are normally readily available from multiple sources, but may be subject to price volatility. Due to COVID-19 and other macro-economic factors, the availability of electronic components has resulted in additional expediting activities, fulfillment challenges, and in some cases price increases. We have also seen price increases for ferrous and non-ferrous metals and other raw materials. Our procurement teams utilize advanced planning and may enter into strategic agreements with our global suppliers to minimize price impacts and other
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availability challenges. We anticipate some pricing and fulfillment volatility for certain raw materials, components and certain logistics lanes to continue through 2023.
In addition to raw materials and component parts, we also use the products and services of metal fabricators, machine shops, foundries, forge shops, assembly operations, contract manufacturers, logistics providers, packagers, indirect material providers, and others in order to produce and deliver products to customers. These materials and services are generally available from multiple sources.
ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL AND GOVERNANCE ("ESG")
We believe we have an important role to play in society as an industry leader and partner. We view ESG as a key lever to transform the performance of our Company and our industry. In 2019, we made a commitment to reduce Scope 1 and 2 carbon emissions from our operations by 50% by 2030 and achieve net zero emissions by 2050. This goal encompasses emissions from our direct operations ("Scope 1 and 2 carbon emissions") in alignment with the Paris Agreement and the specific recommendations of the United Nations ("UN") Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5oC.
We continue to make progress on emissions reductions. Baker Hughes reported in its 2021 Corporate Responsibility report a 23% reduction in our Scope 1 and 2 carbon emissions compared to our 2019 base year. This reduction was primarily due to executing on our net-zero roadmap and the key decarbonization pathways through a combination of energy efficiency initiatives, facility consolidation, increasing electric power consumption from renewable energy sources, and improvements in our vehicle fleet, among other reasons. We will continue to employ a broad range of emissions reduction initiatives across manufacturing, supply chain, logistics, energy sourcing, and generation.
We also continue efforts to reduce our overall environmental footprint by using materials wisely and preserving land, water, and air quality. Our sustainability commitments include our formal participation in the UN Global Compact ("UNGC") and our commitment to the Ten Principles including human rights, labor, environment, and anti-corruption, as well as the UNGC's Sustainable Development Goals. We have annually renewed our commitment to the UN Global Compact since joining in 2019.
Social & Human Capital
At Baker Hughes, our people are central contributors to our purpose of taking energy forward. As an energy technology company with operations around the world, we believe that a diverse workforce is critical to our success, and we aim to attract the best and most diverse talent to support the energy transition. We strive to be an inclusive and safe workplace, with opportunities for our employees to grow and develop in their careers, supported by learning and development opportunities, competitive compensation, benefits, health and wellness programs, and by programs that build connections between our employees and their communities.
As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately 55,000 employees. More than 42,000 of our employees work outside the U.S. in over 85 different countries with more than 150 nationalities represented. This diversity of global perspectives makes our Company stronger, more resilient, and more responsive to our global customers.
Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion ("DEI")
We believe unique ideas and perspectives fuel innovation and our differences make us stronger. We value difference in gender, race, ethnicity, age, gender identity, sexual orientation, ability, cultural background, religion, veteran status, experience, and thought across the globe. We celebrate the diversity and uniqueness of each employee and believe that everyone has the right to be treated with fairness, dignity, and respect. And we know that our commitment to DEI will enable us to continue to recruit and retain a diverse workforce, promote an inclusive culture, expand our supplier diversity, and be a stronger partner to our customers and our community.
As we continue to prioritize DEI, we are focused on diversifying our workforce, with a particular emphasis on increasing gender representation. In 2022, the percentage of people who identify as women in our workforce,
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senior leadership positions, and on the Baker Hughes Board of Directors, was 19%, 19%, and 33%, respectively. Specific to the U.S., 36% of our employees identify as people of color.
To ensure we have access to and support diverse pipelines of talent across the globe while prioritizing development and retention, we have ongoing DEI annual plan meetings with our executive leadership team. These annual meetings hold leadership accountable for integrating DEI into their respective parts of the business. We have corporate memberships with respected nonprofits, such as Ally Energy, Catalyst, Disability:IN, and the Women's Energy Network, which provide partnership and guidance as we continue our efforts in fostering a diverse, equitable, and inclusive culture. Our talent acquisition efforts as well as our eight global employee resource groups support the engagement and retention of diverse talent.
Talent Acquisition: We have enacted a number of initiatives to support our global goal of increasing the number of diverse employees. We have conducted training on unconscious bias and launched pilot projects on blind resumes and debiasing job descriptions, interview templates, and assessments as well as expanded our talent acquisition focus to include executive search services.
Employee Resource Groups ("ERG"): ERGs consist of employees who have joined together based on shared interests, characteristics, or life experiences. These groups can have a powerful influence on driving change by elevating the conversation and awareness around key issues and engaging with the communities where we operate. In 2022, we further expanded our support of the ERGs in several ways, including the opportunity for ERGs to nominate charitable organizations to receive grants from the Baker Hughes Foundation. These efforts have helped our DEI focus and fostered closer connections between employees in communities around the world.
Inclusive Culture: We have several programs and initiatives that cultivate an inclusive culture. The Baker Hughes Global DEI Council, comprised of executives representing our businesses, functions and regions, supports the success of our DEI mission and meets quarterly to review progress and discuss ways in which to continue to advance our efforts. The DEI Community of Practice facilitates sharing best practices across the enterprise. We provide our workforce with tools, resources, and learning opportunities that raise awareness, foster inclusive behaviors, and build cross-cultural competences.
Compensation and Benefits
We are committed to paying for performance and supporting our employees’ wellbeing, as well as the wellbeing of their families, by offering flexible and competitive benefits tailored by location to meet the specific needs of our employees. We regularly assess our total compensation and benefits programs through regular benchmarking with industry peers and local markets. We strive to ensure that our compensation programs are fair and equitable for all employees. Healthcare plans and life insurance are a core benefit of the Company and are provided in most locations. Baker Hughes offers various leaves of absence options for certain quality-of-life needs, including family care. We also continue to assess and provide programs that support our employees' work arrangements such as flexible schedules, compressed work weeks, hybrid work, remote work, and other options.
Learning and Development
Learning and Development is a personal journey at Baker Hughes. We empower our employees to follow their passion for personal knowledge, job related skills, development, and the domain expertise needed for professional and personal growth. In alignment with this, in 2022, we added CORE Strengths and Journey courses to our learning communities catalog for our employees to learn, share and practice with their peers no matter where they are in their career. CORE Strengths adds focus to the critical skills (for example Data Analytics, Project Management, Change Management) that will help transform our organization, and Journey is targeted for our promoted leaders to help them transition to their newly expanded role. Also in 2022, we started offering in-person learning opportunities to compliment the robust virtual learning catalog with workshops, team development, and flagships. In 2021, we launched the community, CORE Values, which is a curated learning space centered around our Baker Hughes Values: Grow, Care, Collaborate & Lead, and the behaviors associated with each value. Each learning community involves e-learning, virtual workshops, and allows participants to lead their own sessions.
Our formal leadership development programs play a pivotal role in attracting, retaining, and developing talent and increasing the pipeline of diverse talent into and within the organization. As an example, Aspire is a two-year
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rotational leadership program for recent graduates and early-career employees to grow functional and leadership skills through challenging assignments, learning plans, and global cross-functional projects.
Health, Safety, Environment, and Wellness
Health and safety is at the core of our culture as we are committed to doing the right thing to protect our employees, customers, the communities where we live and work, and the environment. We take a risk-based approach with proactive and preventive programs to deliver safe, secure, and sustainable operations. We have established a stringent set of standards which meet or exceed global regulatory requirements.
Our commitment to HSE starts at the highest levels of our Company and is embedded throughout all layers of the organization. We encourage and empower all employees to take an active role in "owning" HSE by stopping work when conditions are unsafe and reporting observations, near misses, and stop-work events through open reporting channels. Our teams are required to complete recurring training. We offer more than 230 unique HSE courses including foundational training required for all employees, workplace and job-specific training, and human-performance leadership training for managers. Our ambition is to make every day a Perfect HSE Day—one without serious injuries, accidents, or harm to the environment. In 2022, we achieved 217 Perfect HSE Days, up 6% versus 2021.
Our commitment to HSE goes beyond safety alone. Occupational health and wellness is a key competency jointly managed within our HSE and HR centers of excellence. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have taken prudent steps as a company to reduce the risk and spread of the virus. Our top priorities have remained: protecting our employees, maintaining operations, and supporting customers and communities globally. As conditions improved in certain places, we started bringing more employees back to offices and worksites and enabled opportunities for more in-person engagements where it was safe to do so. We continue to monitor the situation and will adapt our protocols as needed to protect our employees and deliver for our customers, in alignment with all associated requirements.
The importance of physical health, ergonomics, preventative health care, and mental wellness cannot be overstated in promoting a healthy, engaged, and productive workplace. We work with our health benefit providers and internal teams to offer employees health and wellness programs, telemedicine access, health screenings, immunizations, fitness reimbursements, and virtual wellness tools.
In 2022, the mental health and emotional well-being of our employees continued to be a critical priority. We hosted numerous events with Baker Hughes leaders and external experts, further embedded mental well-being into leadership engagements, and provided resources and tools to employees. Our Employee Assistance Program ("EAP") helps employees navigate daily life to manage remote work, cope with major life events or deal with a global pandemic. The EAP gives employees and their family members direct access to professional coaches for in-the-moment counseling or referrals to community experts and extended care providers.
Baker Hughes seeks to make a positive impact in the communities where we conduct business around the world. Consistent with our purpose and values, we work to advance environmental quality, educational opportunities, health, and wellness. We benefit our communities through financial contributions, in-kind donations of goods and services, and volunteer projects. The Baker Hughes Foundation makes strategic philanthropic contributions, matches Baker Hughes employee charitable contributions, and awards volunteer recognition grants for outstanding employee community service.
Baker Hughes' Board of Directors ("the Board") believes the purpose of corporate governance is to maximize shareholder value in a manner consistent with legal requirements and the highest standards of integrity. The Board has adopted and adheres to corporate governance practices, which the Board and management believe promote this purpose, are sound, and represent best practices. The Board periodically reviews these governance practices, Delaware law (the state in which the Company is organized), the rules and listing standards of Nasdaq and SEC regulations, as well as best practices suggested by recognized governance authorities.
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The Board monitors and provides oversight over our ESG policies, programs, and practices regarding corporate responsibility and sustainability and plays an active role in overseeing our human capital management efforts. Our Human Capital and Compensation Committee provides oversight of our social strategy, policies, programs, and initiatives focusing on DEI as well as pay equity, culture, talent development, succession planning, and executive compensation and benefits. Our Governance & Corporate Responsibility Committee provides oversight of the Company's environmental matters, including monitoring its sustainability strategy and initiatives and the management of employee health, safety, and wellness matters. The Audit Committee provides oversight over the Company’s risk assessment and risk management policies and processes, including data privacy, ethics, and compliance reporting.
We are committed to the health and safety of people, protection of the environment and compliance with environmental laws, regulations and our policies. Our past and present operations include activities that are subject to extensive domestic (including U.S. federal, state and local) and international regulations concerning, among other things, air and water quality, waste management, and land protection. Environmental regulations continue to evolve, and changes in standards of enforcement of existing regulations, as well as the enactment of new legislation, may require us and our customers to modify, supplement or replace equipment or facilities or to change or discontinue present methods of operation. Our environmental compliance expenditures and our capital costs for environmental control equipment may change accordingly.
While we seek to embed and verify sound environmental practices throughout our business, we are, and may in the future be, involved in voluntary remediation projects at current and former properties, typically related to historical operations. On rare occasions, our remediation activities are conducted as specified by a government agency-issued consent decree or agreed order. Remediation costs at these properties are accrued using currently available facts, existing environmental permits, technology and presently enacted laws and regulations. For sites where we are primarily responsible for the remediation, our cost estimates are developed based on internal evaluations and are not discounted. We record accruals when it is probable that we will be obligated to pay amounts for environmental site evaluation, remediation or related activities, and such amounts can be reasonably estimated. Accruals are recorded even if significant uncertainties exist over the ultimate cost of the remediation. Ongoing environmental compliance costs, such as obtaining environmental permits, installation and maintenance of pollution control equipment and waste disposal, are expensed as incurred.
The U.S. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (known as "Superfund") imposes liability for the release of a "hazardous substance" into the environment. Superfund liability is imposed without regard to fault, even if the waste disposal was in compliance with laws and regulations. We have been identified as a potentially responsible party ("PRP") at various Superfund sites, and we accrue our share, if known, of the estimated remediation costs for the site. PRPs in Superfund actions have joint and several liability and may be required to pay more than their proportional share of such costs.
In some cases, it is not possible to quantify our ultimate exposure because the projects are either in the investigative or early remediation stage, or superfund allocation information is not yet available. Based upon current information, we believe that our overall compliance with environmental regulations, including remediation obligations, environmental compliance costs and capital expenditures for environmental control equipment, will not have a material adverse effect on our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position because we have either established adequate reserves or our compliance cost, based on available information, is not expected to be material to our consolidated financial statements. Our total accrual for environmental remediation was $63 million and $67 million at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. We continue to focus on reducing future environmental liabilities by maintaining appropriate Company standards and by improving our environmental assurance programs.
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Other Regulatory Matters
We are subject to regulation by various U.S. federal regulatory agencies and by the applicable regulatory authorities in countries in which our products are manufactured or sold. Such regulations principally relate to the ingredients, classification, labeling, safety, manufacturing, packaging, transportation, advertising, and marketing of our products. Additionally, as a U.S. entity operating through subsidiaries in non-U.S. jurisdictions, we are subject to foreign exchange control, transfer pricing and customs laws that regulate the import and export of goods as well as the flow of funds between us and our subsidiaries. In particular, the shipment of goods, services and technology across international borders subjects us to extensive trade laws and regulations. Our import activities are governed by the unique customs laws and regulations in each of the countries where we operate. Pursuant to their laws and regulations, governments may impose economic sanctions against certain countries, persons and entities that may restrict or prohibit transactions involving such countries, persons and entities, which may limit or prevent our conduct of business in certain jurisdictions. We are also required to be in compliance with transfer pricing, securities laws, and other statutes and regulations, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA") and other countries’ anti-corruption and anti-bribery regimes.
As a result of the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine that began in February of 2022, governments in the U.S., United Kingdom, European Union ("EU"), and other countries enacted sanctions against Russia and certain Russian interests. As previously announced on March 19, 2022, we suspended any new investments in our Russia operations, but continued to comply with applicable laws and regulations as we fulfilled current contractual obligations. Over the course of the second quarter of 2022, we closely monitored the developments in Ukraine and Russia and changes to sanctions all of which continued to make ongoing operations increasingly complex and significantly more challenging. As a result, we completed a number of actions during the course of 2022 including the sale of part of our OFSE Russia business and suspended substantially all of our remaining operational activities in Russia. For further information see "Note 18. Restructuring, Impairment and Other" and "Note 19. Business Dispositions and Acquisitions” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein.
We are also subject to laws relating to data privacy and security and consumer credit, protection and fraud. An increasing number of governments worldwide have established laws and regulations, and industry groups also have promoted various standards, regarding data privacy and security, including with respect to the protection and processing of personal data. The legal and regulatory environment related to data privacy and security is increasingly rigorous, with new and constantly changing requirements applicable to our business, and enforcement practices are likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. We are also subject to labor and employment laws, including regulations established by the U.S. Department of Labor and other local regulatory agencies, which sets laws governing working conditions, paid leave, workplace safety, wage and hour standards, and hiring and employment practices.
While there are no current regulatory matters that we expect to be material to our results of operations, financial position or cash flows, there can be no assurances that existing or future environmental laws and other laws, regulations and standards applicable to our operations or products will not lead to a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION FOR SECURITY HOLDERS
Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended ("Exchange Act"), are made available free of charge on our internet website at www.bakerhughes.com as soon as reasonably practicable after these reports have been electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC, and can be found at their internet website www.sec.gov. In addition, Baker Hughes' Corporate Responsibility reports are available on the Company section of our website at www.bakerhughes.com. Information contained on or connected to our website is not incorporated by reference into this annual report on Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this annual report or any other filing we make with the SEC.
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EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF BAKER HUGHES HOLDINGS LLC
The following table shows, as of February 14, 2023, the name of each of our executive officers, together with his or her age and office presently or previously held. There are no family relationships among our executive officers.
|Name||Age||Position and Background|
President and Chief Executive Officer
Lorenzo Simonelli has been the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company since July 2017. Prior to joining the Company in July 2017, Mr. Simonelli was Senior Vice President, GE and President and Chief Executive Officer, GE Oil & Gas from October 2013 to July 2017. Before joining GE Oil & Gas, he was the President and Chief Executive Officer of GE Transportation from July 2008 to October 2013. Mr. Simonelli joined GE in 1994 and held various finance and leadership roles from 1994 to 2008.
Chief Financial Officer
Nancy Buese is the Chief Financial Officer of the Company. Prior to joining the Company in November 2022, she served as Executive Vice President ("EVP") and Chief Financial Officer ("CFO") of Newmont Corporation, a gold mining company, since October 2016. Prior to her role at Newmont, Ms. Buese spent more than a decade as EVP & CFO of MarkWest Energy Partners, a leader in gathering, processing, and transportation of hydrocarbons, as well as EVP & CFO of MPLX (a subsidiary of Marathon Petroleum) following MPLX’s acquisition of MarkWest. She began her career in public accounting, starting as an accountant for Arthur Andersen and rising to be a partner at Ernst & Young until 2003.
Senior Vice President, Enterprise Operational Excellence
Jim Apostolides is the Senior Vice President of Enterprise Operational Excellence of the Company. He previously served as Senior Vice President of Enterprise Excellence from February 2020 - September 2022. In July 2017, he was appointed VP of Materials Management, Logistics, and Cash Operations. He began his career in 1999 with GE and held roles of increasing responsibility, including managerial positions in Shop Operations, Materials, Sourcing, and Fulfillment across multiple continents.
|Maria Claudia Borras||54|
Executive Vice President, Oilfield Services and Equipment
Maria Claudia Borras is the Executive Vice President, Oilfield Services and Equipment of the Company. She previously served as Executive Vice President, of Oilfield Services from July 2017 - September 2022. Prior to joining the Company in July 2017, she served as the Chief Commercial Officer of GE Oil & Gas from January 2015 to July 2017. Prior to joining GE Oil & Gas, she held various leadership positions at Baker Hughes Incorporated including President, Latin America from October 2013 to December 2014, President, Europe Region from August 2011 to October 2013, Vice President, Global Marketing from May 2009 to July 2011 and other leadership roles at Baker Hughes Incorporated from 1994 to April 2009.
Senior Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer
Kurt Camilleri is the Senior Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer of the Company. Prior to joining the Company in July 2017, he served as the Global Controller for GE Oil & Gas from July 2013 to July 2017. Mr. Camilleri served as the Global Controller for GE Transportation from January 2013 to June 2013 and the Controller for Europe and Eastern and African Growth Markets for GE Healthcare from 2010 to January 2013. He began his career in 1996 with Pricewaterhouse in London, which subsequently became PricewaterhouseCoopers.
Chief Legal Officer
Regina Jones is the Chief Legal Officer of the Company. Prior to joining the Company in May 2020, she served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary for Delek U.S. Holdings, Inc and Delek Logistics Partners LP from May 2018 to April 2020. Prior to that, she worked at Schlumberger as General Counsel for the Land Rigs product line from June 2016 to May 2018 and in various international legal roles in France, Malaysia and the United States from 2005 to 2018.
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|Name||Age||Position and Background|
Executive Vice President, Industrial & Energy Technology
Ganesh Ramaswamy is the Executive Vice President, Industrial & Energy Technology. Prior to joining the Company in January 2023, he served as President of Global Services for Johnson Controls. Prior to joining Johnson Controls, he served at Danaher Corporation in various executive roles including Senior Vice President of High Growth Markets at Beckman Coulter Diagnostics; President of Videojet Technologies; and Group Executive for Marking & Coding. Earlier in his career, Ramaswamy held executive roles at Hoya Corporation. He began his career in product development and general management for GE Global Research and GE Healthcare.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The following risk factors should be considered carefully in addition to the other information contained in this annual report. There may be additional risks, uncertainties and matters not listed below, that we are unaware of, or that we currently consider immaterial. Any of these may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and, thus, the value of an investment in the Company.
We operate in a highly competitive environment, which may adversely affect our ability to succeed. Our investments in new technologies, equipment, and facilities may not provide competitive returns.
We operate in a highly competitive environment for marketing oilfield products and services and securing equipment. Our ability to continually provide competitive products and services can impact our ability to defend, maintain or increase prices for our products and services, maintain market share, and negotiate acceptable contract terms with our customers. In order to be competitive, we must provide new and differentiating technologies, reliable products and services that perform as expected and that create value for our customers.
We continue to invest in new technologies, equipment, and facilities. Our ability to defend, maintain or increase prices for our products and services is in part dependent on the industry’s capacity relative to customer demand, and on our ability to differentiate the value delivered by our products and services from our competitors’ products and services. Managing development of competitive technology and new product introductions on a forecasted schedule and at a forecasted cost can impact our financial results. If we are unable to continue to develop and produce competitive and innovative technology or deliver it to our clients in a timely and cost-competitive manner in response to changes in the market, customer requirements, competitive pressures, or as a result of the energy transition to lower carbon emitting technology, or if competing technology accelerates the obsolescence of any of our products or services, any competitive advantage that we may hold, and in turn, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
Failure to effectively and timely execute our energy transition strategy could have an adverse effect on the demand for our technologies and services.
Our future success may depend upon our ability to effectively execute on our energy transition strategy. Our strategy depends on our ability to develop additional innovative technologies and work with our customers and partners to advance new energy solutions such as carbon capture utilization and storage, hydrogen energy, geothermal, and other integrated solutions. If the energy transition landscape changes faster than anticipated or faster than we can transition or if we fail to execute our energy transition strategy as planned, demand for our technologies and services or access to credit could be adversely affected.
The implementation of our plan to restructure our corporate organization and operating segments may not achieve the results we anticipate, which could adversely affect our business.
In the second half of 2022, we announced a plan to undertake certain corporate realignments and restructure our four operating segments to focus on two operating segments, OFSE and IET, in order to simplify and streamline our organizational structure, and create better flexibility and economies of scale across the two operating segments. These restructuring activities may be more costly than anticipated, and could lead to the diversion of management’s attention from other business priorities. As a result of these or any other factors, we may not realize the anticipated
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benefits associated with the restructuring plan. There can be no assurance that the restructuring plan will result in cost savings or will materially increase our profitability. Even if the restructuring plan generates the benefits that we have anticipated, there may be other unforeseeable and unintended factors or consequences that occur as a result of the restructuring, which could adversely affect our business.
Disruptions in our supply chain, the high cost or unavailability of raw materials, equipment, and supplies essential to our business could adversely affect our ability to execute our operations on a timely basis.
Our manufacturing operations are dependent on having sufficient raw materials, component parts and manufacturing capacity, including labor, available to meet our manufacturing plans on a timely basis, at a reasonable cost while minimizing inventories. Disruptions within our supply chain resulting from factors including, but not limited to, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, inflation, rising interest rates, and shortages in labor supply, have had and may continue to have an impact on our business and reputation. As a result of these or any other factors, our ability to execute our operations on a timely basis, including our ability to meet our manufacturing plans and revenue goals, control costs, and avoid shortages or over-supply of raw materials and component parts, could be adversely affected.
If we are unable to attract and retain key personnel, we may not be able to execute our business strategy effectively and our operations could be adversely affected.
Our operations and future success depend on our ability to recruit, train, and retain key personnel. People are a key resource to developing, manufacturing, and delivering our products and providing technical services to our customers around the world. A competent, well-trained, highly skilled, motivated, and diverse workforce has a positive impact on our ability to attract and retain business. Difficulties in hiring or retaining key employees, or the unexpected loss of experienced employees resulting in the depletion of our institutional knowledge base, could have an adverse impact on our business performance, reputation, financial condition, or results of operations. Additionally, successfully executing organizational change as we restructure the Company, management transitions at leadership levels of the Company, and motivation and retention of key employees is critical to our business success. Factors that may affect our ability to attract and retain sufficient numbers of qualified employees include employee morale, our reputation, competition from other employers, and availability of qualified individuals. Other factors that have and could continue to impact our workforce is changes to our office environments, the adoption of new work models, and our requirements and/or expectations about when or how often certain employees work on-site or remotely which may not meet the expectations of our employees.
Our business could be impacted by both geopolitical and terrorism threats, including armed conflict, in countries where we or our customers do business and our business operations may be impacted by civil unrest and/or government expropriations.
Geopolitical and terrorism threats continue to grow in a number of key countries where we currently or may in the future do business. Geopolitical and terrorism threats, including armed conflict among countries, has had and could in the future lead to, among other things, a loss of our investment in the country, adverse impact to our employees, and impairment of our or our customers’ ability to conduct operations.
Further, the broader consequences of geopolitical and terrorism threats, which may include further sanctions that prohibit our ability to do business in specific countries, embargoes, supply chain disruptions, the potential inability to service our remaining performance obligations and potential contractual breaches and litigation, regional instability and geopolitical shifts, and the extent of any such threats effect on our business and results of operations as well as the global economy, cannot be predicted.
Certain geopolitical conflicts, such as between Russia and Ukraine, have had and may continue to have the effect of heightening many other risks disclosed in our public filings, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. Such risks include, but are not limited to, adverse effects on global macroeconomic conditions; increased volatility in the price and demand of oil and natural gas, increased exposure to cyber attacks; limitations in our ability to implement and execute our business strategy; risks to employees and contractors that we have in the region; disruptions in global supply chains; exposure to foreign currency fluctuations; potential nationalizations and assets seizures; constraints or disruption in the capital markets and our sources of liquidity; our potential inability to service our remaining performance obligations and potential contractual breaches and litigation.
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Control of oil and natural gas reserves by national oil companies may impact the demand for our services and products and create additional risks in our operations.
Much of the world’s oil and natural gas reserves are controlled by national oil companies. National oil companies may require their contractors to meet local content requirements or other local standards, such as conducting our operations through joint ventures with local partners that could be difficult or undesirable for us to meet. The failure to meet the local content requirements and other local standards may adversely impact our operations in those countries. In addition, our ability to work with national oil companies is subject to our ability to negotiate and agree upon acceptable contract terms.
Our operations involve a variety of operating hazards and risks that could cause losses.
The products that we manufacture and the services that we provide are complex, and the failure of our equipment to operate properly or to meet specifications may greatly increase our customers’ costs. In addition, many of these products are used in inherently hazardous industries, such as the offshore oilfield business. These hazards include blowouts, explosions, unplanned or uncontrolled releases, nuclear-related events, fires, collisions, capsizings, and severe weather conditions. We may incur substantial liabilities or losses as a result of these hazards. Our insurance and contractual indemnity protection may not be sufficient or effective to protect us under all circumstances or against all risks. The occurrence of a significant event, against which we were not fully insured or indemnified or the failure of a customer to meet its indemnification obligations to us, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
The potential physical or transition risks posed by climate change could adversely affect our operations and those of our customers.
There is increasing concern over risks posed by climate change and related environmental sustainability matters. The physical risks of climate change can include extreme variability in weather patterns such as increased frequency and severity of significant weather events (e.g. flooding, hurricanes and tropical storms), natural hazards (e.g., increased wildfire risk), rising mean temperature and sea levels, and long-term changes in precipitation patterns (e.g. drought, desertification, or poor water quality). Such effects have the potential to affect business continuity and operating results, particularly at facilities in coastal areas or areas prone to chronic water scarcity, and could disrupt our operations or those of our customers or suppliers, including through direct damage to physical assets and indirect impacts from supply chain disruption and market volatility. While we evaluate and incorporate potential ranges of physical risks, it is difficult to predict with certainty the timing, frequency or severity of such events, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. See also “Seasonal and weather conditions, including severe weather associated with climate change, could adversely affect demand for our services and operations.”
Additionally, transitioning to a low-carbon economy will likely require extensive policy, legal, technology, and market changes. There is increased focus by governments and our customers, investors and other stakeholders on climate change, sustainability, and energy transition matters. Negative attitudes toward or perceptions of our industry or fossil fuel products and their relationship to the environment have led governments, non-governmental organizations, and companies to implement initiatives to conserve energy and promote the use of alternative energy sources, which may reduce the demand for and production of oil and gas in areas of the world where our customers operate, and thus reduce future demand for our products and services. In addition, initiatives by investors and financial institutions to limit funding to companies in fossil fuel-related industries may adversely affect our liquidity or access to capital.
Seasonal and weather conditions, including severe weather associated with climate change, could adversely affect demand for our services and operations.
Variation from normal weather patterns, such as cooler or warmer summers and winters, can have a significant impact on demand for our services and operations. Adverse weather conditions, such as hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, may interrupt or curtail our operations, or our customers’ operations, cause supply disruptions and result in a loss of revenue and damage to our equipment and facilities, which may or may not be insured. For example, extreme winter conditions in Canada or the North Sea may interrupt or curtail our operations, or our customers’ operations, in those areas and result in a loss of revenue. Repercussions of severe or unseasonable weather conditions, including as a result of climate change, may include evacuation of personnel and curtailment of services;
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weather-related damage to offshore drilling rigs resulting in suspension of operations; weather-related damage to our facilities and project work sites; inability to deliver materials to job sites in accordance with contract schedules; decreases in demand for oil and natural gas during unseasonably warm winters; and loss of productivity. As a result of the above repercussions or any others, demand for our services and operations may be adversely affected.
The partial or complete loss of GE as a customer or supplier, as well as contracts with our aeroderivative joint venture (the “Aero JV”) with GE may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We currently have an extensive commercial relationship with GE. Although we have a long-term contractual framework in place with GE, if GE were to discontinue or reduce its business with the Company, fail to perform its obligations under existing contracts or experience significant disruptions, including under the intellectual property related agreements with GE, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely affected.
In addition to our contracts and arrangements with GE as a direct customer and supplier, we and GE formed the Aero JV in 2019. The Aero JV is jointly controlled by GE and us, and as a result, realizing the benefits of this joint venture depends on the continued cooperation between the parties. In addition, the business and financial performance of the Aero JV may be adversely affected if GE were to fail to perform its obligations under its contracts with the Aero JV. We in turn use certain products purchased through the Aero JV for the manufacture of various end products, and therefore, failure of the Aero JV to perform for any reason could prevent us from fulfilling our contractual obligations, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our business has and may continue to be adversely affected by a public health emergency or outbreak of a contagious disease or virus, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
In the past, the markets have experienced volatility in oil demand due to the economic impacts of public health emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. If demand for our products and services decline as a result of a public health emergency, the utilization of our assets and the prices we are able to charge our customers for our products and services could decline. The continued spread of COVID-19 or a similar pandemic could result in further instability in the markets and decreases in commodity prices resulting in further adverse impacts on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, the outbreak and spread of contagious diseases such as COVID-19 and measures to contain the disease may adversely impact our workforce and operations, operations of our customers, and those of our vendors and suppliers. The extent to which these public health emergencies, including the COVID-19 pandemic, may continue to adversely impact our business depends on future developments, which are highly uncertain and unpredictable, depending on the severity and duration of the emergency and effectiveness of actions taken globally to contain or mitigate its effects. There is considerable uncertainty regarding such containment or mitigation measures and potential future measures which may result in labor disruptions, employee attrition, and could negatively impact our ability to attract and retain qualified employees, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
CREDIT AND CUSTOMER CONTRACTING RISKS
Providing services on an integrated, turnkey, or fixed price basis could require us to assume additional risks.
We may choose to enter into integrated or turnkey contracts with our customers that require us to provide services and equipment outside of our core business. Providing services on an integrated or turnkey basis may also subject us to additional risks, such as costs associated with unexpected delays or difficulties in drilling operations, project management interface risk, and risks associated with subcontracting and consortium arrangements. These integrated or turnkey contracts may be fixed price contracts that do not allow us to recover for cost over-runs unless they are directly caused by the customer.
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We may not be able to satisfy technical requirements, testing requirements or other specifications required under our service contracts and equipment purchase agreements.
Our products are used in deepwater, and other harsh environments, and severe service applications. Our contracts with customers and customer requests for bids typically set forth detailed specifications or technical requirements for our products and services, which may also include extensive testing requirements. In addition, scrutiny of the offshore drilling industry has resulted in more stringent technical specifications for our products and more comprehensive testing requirements for our products to ensure compliance with such specifications. We cannot provide assurance that our products, including products supplied through joint ventures, will be able to satisfy the specifications or that we will be able to perform the full-scale testing necessary to prove that the product specifications are satisfied in future contract bids or under existing contracts, or that the costs of modifications to our products to satisfy the specifications and testing will not adversely affect our results of operations.
We sometimes enter into consortium or similar arrangements for certain projects, which could impose additional costs and obligations on us.
We sometimes enter into consortium or similar arrangements for certain projects. Under such arrangements, each party is responsible for performing a certain scope of work within the total scope of the contracted work, and the obligations expire when all contractual obligations are completed. The failure or inability, financially or otherwise, of any of the parties to perform their obligations could impose additional costs and obligations on us. These factors could result in unanticipated costs to complete the project, liquidated damages or contract disputes.
Our contracts may be terminated early in certain circumstances.
Our contracts with customers generally may be terminated by the customer for convenience, default, or extended force majeure (which could include inability to perform due to COVID-19 or a similar pandemic). Termination for convenience may require the payment of an early termination fee by the customer, but the early termination fee may not fully compensate us for the loss of the contract. Termination by the customer for default or extended force majeure due to events outside of our control generally will not require the customer to pay an early termination fee.
Our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected if our customers terminate some of our contracts, and we are unable to secure new contracts on a timely basis and on substantially similar terms, if payments due under our contracts are suspended for an extended period of time, or if a number of our contracts are renegotiated. Our remaining performance obligation ("RPO") is comprised of unfilled customer orders for products and product services (expected life of contract sales for product services). The actual amount and timing of revenues earned may be substantially different than the reported RPO. The total dollar amount of the Company’s RPO as of December 31, 2022 was $27.8 billion.
The credit risks of having a concentrated customer base in the energy industry could result in losses.
Having a concentration of customers in the energy industry may impact our overall exposure to credit risk as our customers may be similarly affected by prolonged changes in economic and industry conditions. Some of our customers may experience extreme financial distress as a result of falling commodity prices and may be forced to seek protection under applicable bankruptcy laws, which may affect our ability to recover any amounts due from such customers. Furthermore, countries that rely heavily upon income from hydrocarbon exports have been and may in the future be negatively and significantly affected by a drop in oil prices, which could affect our ability to collect from our customers in these countries, particularly national oil companies. Laws in some jurisdictions in which we will operate could make collection difficult or time consuming. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers and do not expect to require collateral in support of our trade receivables. While we maintain reserves for potential credit losses, we cannot assure such reserves will be sufficient to meet write-offs of uncollectible receivables or that our losses from such receivables will be consistent with our expectations. Additionally, in the event of a bankruptcy of any of our customers, we may be treated as an unsecured creditor and may collect substantially less, or none, of the amounts owed to us by such customer.
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Our customers’ activity levels and spending for our products and services and ability to pay amounts owed us could be impacted by the reduction of their cash flow and the ability of our customers to access equity or credit markets.
Our customers’ access to capital is dependent on their ability to access the funds necessary to develop economically attractive projects based upon their expectations of future energy prices, required investments, and resulting returns. Limited access to external sources of funding has caused and may continue to cause customers to reduce their capital spending plans to levels supported by internally generated cash flow. In addition, a reduction of cash flow resulting from declines in commodity prices, a reduction in borrowing bases under reserve-based credit facilities or the lack of available debt or equity financing may impact the ability of our customers to pay amounts owed to us and could cause us to increase our reserve for credit losses.
LEGAL AND REGULATORY RISKS
Compliance with and changes in laws could be costly and could affect operating results. In addition, government disruptions could negatively impact our ability to conduct our business.
We conduct business in more than 120 countries that can be impacted by expected and unexpected changes in the legal and business environments in which we operate. In particular, the shipment of goods, services and technology across international borders subjects us to extensive trade laws and regulations. Our import activities are governed by the unique customs laws and regulations in each of the countries where we operate. Pursuant to their laws and regulations, governments may impose economic sanctions against certain countries, persons and entities that may restrict or prohibit transactions involving such countries, persons and entities, which may limit or prevent our conduct of business in certain jurisdictions.
Compliance-related issues could limit our ability to do business in certain countries and impact our earnings or result in investigations leading to fines, penalties or other remedial measures. Changes that could impact the legal environment include new legislation, new regulations, new policies, investigations, and legal proceedings and new interpretations of existing legal rules and regulations, in particular, changes in export control laws or exchange control laws, additional restrictions on doing business in countries subject to sanctions, and changes in laws in countries where we operate. In addition, changes and uncertainty in the political environments in which our businesses operate can have a material effect on the laws, rules, and regulations that affect our operations. Government disruptions may also delay or halt the granting and renewal of permits, licenses and other items required by us and our customers to conduct our business. The continued success of our global business and operations depends, in part, on our ability to continue to anticipate and effectively manage these and other political, legal and regulatory risks.
Our failure to comply with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA") and other similar laws could have a negative impact on our ongoing operations.
Our ability to comply with the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act, and various other anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws depends on the success of our ongoing compliance program, including our ability to successfully manage our agents, distributors and other business partners, and supervise, train, and retain competent employees. We could be subject to sanctions and civil and criminal prosecution, fines and penalties, as well as legal expenses and reputational harm in the event of a finding of a violation of any of these laws by us or any of our employees.
Anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws could have adverse consequences for us.
Non-compliance with anti-money laundering, anti-terrorism financing and various other financial laws may subject us to sanctions, civil and criminal prosecution, fines and penalties, as well as legal expenses and potential reputational harm. We cannot be sure our programs and controls are or will remain effective to ensure our compliance with all applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws and regulations.
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Changes in tax laws, tax rates, tariffs, adverse positions taken by taxing authorities, and tax audits could impact operating results.
Changes in tax laws, tax rates, tariffs, changes in interpretation of tax laws, the resolution of tax assessments or audits by various tax authorities, and the ability to fully utilize tax loss carryforwards and tax credits could impact our operating results, including additional valuation allowances for deferred tax assets.
We could be subject to litigation claims arising out of our products and services which could adversely affect our reputation, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The technical complexities of our operations expose us to a wide range of significant health, safety and environmental risks and we are from time to time subject to litigation in the U.S. and in foreign countries, for example claims involving services or equipment such as personal injury or loss of life, product failure (including as a result of a cyber attack) or damage to or destruction of property, employment and labor, customer privacy, or regulatory risks. While we have insurance coverage against operating hazards to the extent deemed prudent by our management and to the extent insurance is available, our insurance may not cover all expenses related to litigation claims arising from our business. Moreover, we may not be able to maintain insurance at levels of risk coverage or policy limits that we deem adequate. We may therefore incur significant expenses defending any such suit or government charge and may be required to pay amounts or otherwise change our operations in ways that could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We may be subject to litigation if another party claims that we have infringed upon, misappropriated or otherwise violated its intellectual property rights.
The tools, techniques, methodologies, programs and components we use to provide our products and services may infringe upon, misappropriate or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of others or be challenged on that basis. Regardless of the merits, any such claims may result in significant legal and other costs and may distract management from running our core business. Resolving such claims could increase our costs, including through royalty payments to acquire licenses, if available, from third parties and through the development of replacement technologies. If a license to resolve a claim were not available, we might not be able to continue providing a particular service or product, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Compliance with, and rulings and litigation in connection with, environmental regulations and the environmental impacts of our operations may adversely affect our business and operating results.
We and our business are subject to extensive domestic and international environmental and safety regulations. In addition to environmental and safety regulatory compliance obligations, we may face liability arising out of the normal course of business, including alleged personal injury, property damage, and human health risks due to exposure of hazardous substances or processes at our current or former facilities. We may be impacted by material changes in environmental and safety regulations or subject to substantial liability for environmental impacts. Compliance with environmental laws and regulations and associated expenditures, including but not limited to our capital expenditures for environmental control equipment, are forecasted and may be inconsistent based on multiple variables. Our compliance cost forecasts may be substantially different from actual results, which may be affected by factors such as: changes in law that impose restrictions on air or other emissions, wastewater management, waste disposal, hydraulic fracturing, or wetland and land use practices; changes in standards of enforcement of existing environmental laws and regulations; a change in our share of any remediation costs or other unexpected, adverse outcomes with respect to sites where we have been named as a potentially responsible party, and may include Superfund sites; the discovery of other sites, or discovery of additional issues at existing sites, where additional expenditures may be required to comply with environmental legal obligations; and the accidental discharge of hazardous materials.
Investor and public perception related to the Company’s environment, social, and governance ("ESG") performance as well as current and future ESG reporting requirements may affect our business and our operating results.
Increasing focus on ESG factors has led to enhanced interest in, and review of performance results by investors and other stakeholders, and the potential for litigation and reputational risk. We are committed to transparent and
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comprehensive reporting of our sustainability performance and report under standards such as the Global Reporting Initiative, the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board ("SASB"), and recommendations issued by the Financial Stability Board's Task Force for Climate-related Financial Disclosures ("TCFD"). Our voluntary disclosures of ESG data are evaluated and rated by various organizations that assess corporate ESG performance. Over the past few years there has also been increased investor demand for ESG investing opportunities, and the ESG ratings are used by some stakeholders to inform their investment and voting decisions. Unfavorable ESG ratings, or our inability to meet the ESG standards set by specific investors, may lead to unfavorable sentiment toward Baker Hughes, which could have a negative impact, among other things, on Baker Hughes' stock price and cost of capital.
Regulatory requirements related to ESG or sustainability reporting have been adopted in the EU that apply to financial market participants. In the U.S., such regulations have been issued related to pension investments in California, and for the responsible investment of public funds in Illinois. Additional regulation is pending at the SEC and in other states. We expect regulatory requirements related to ESG matters to continue to expand globally. We may be affected by our ability to meet evolving and expanding emissions reporting requirements and by investor and public perception of our reporting and performance related to voluntary climate standards.
To achieve our stated emission reduction goals, we have implemented internal decarbonization projects and may also need to rely on external factors, such as the greater deployment of carbon reduction and removal technologies and adoption of government policies that we expect would accelerate the adoption of energy transition technologies. There have been policy responses to support the energy transition in the U.S. with the passage of the Inflation Reduction Act. In addition, the 2022 energy disruptions have increased energy prices and raised energy security concerns, which may force many governments to reassess energy transition strategies, extending the timeline to ensure adequate and reasonably priced energy supplies. It is difficult to predict with certainty how these policy, economic, and energy security issues will impact the energy transition. Our failure or perceived failure to pursue or fulfill our reductions and elimination of carbon equivalent emissions commitments within the timelines we announce could have a negative impact on investor sentiment, ratings outcomes for evaluating our approach to ESG matters, Baker Hughes' stock price and cost of capital and expose us to government enforcement actions and private litigation, among other material adverse impacts.
International, national, and state governments and agencies continue to evaluate and promulgate legislation and regulations that are focused on reducing greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions. Compliance with GHG emission regulations applicable to our or our customers' operations may have significant implications that could adversely affect our business and operating results in the fossil-fuel sectors.
In the United States, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") has taken steps to regulate GHG emissions as air pollutants under the U.S. Clean Air Act ("CAA") of 1970, as amended. The EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule requires monitoring and reporting of GHG emissions from, among others, certain mobile and stationary GHG emission sources in the oil and natural gas industry, which in turn may include data from our equipment or operations. In addition, the U.S. government has proposed rules in the past setting GHG emission standards for, or otherwise aimed at reducing GHG emissions from, the oil and natural gas industry. International developments focused on restricting GHG emissions include the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which includes implementation of the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol by the signatories; the Glasgow Climate Pact; the European Union Emission Trading System; Article 8 of the European Union Energy Efficiency Directive and the United Kingdom’s Streamlined Energy and Carbon Reporting ("SECR"); the EU's proposed carbon border adjustment mechanism ("CBAM"). Caps or fees on carbon emissions, including in the U.S., have been and may continue to be established and the cost of such caps or fees could disproportionately affect the fossil-fuel sectors. The implementation of these agreements and other existing or future regulatory mandates, may adversely affect the demand for our products and services, require us or our customers to reduce GHG emissions or impose taxes on us or our customers, all of which could have a material effect on our results of operations.
Voluntary initiatives to reduce GHG emissions, as well as increased climate change awareness, may result in increased costs for the oil and gas industry to curb greenhouse gas emissions and could have an adverse impact on demand for oil and natural gas.
There are various corporate and non-governmental initiatives that are focused on voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. These developments, and public perception relating to climate change, may shift demand from oil and natural gas towards an investment in relatively lower carbon emitting energy sources and alternative energy
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solutions. If, for example, new energy sources become more competitive than oil and natural gas globally, it could have a material effect on our results of operations.
Changes in laws or regulations relating to data privacy and security, or any actual or perceived failure by us to comply with such laws or regulations, or contractual or other obligations relating to data privacy or security, may adversely affect our business and operating results.
We may have access to sensitive, confidential, proprietary or personal data or information in certain of our businesses that is or may become subject to various data privacy and security laws, regulations, standards, contractual obligations or customer-imposed controls in the jurisdictions in which we operate. The legal and regulatory environment related to data privacy and security is increasingly rigorous, with new and constantly changing requirements applicable to our business, and enforcement practices are likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. These laws and regulations may be interpreted and applied differently over time and from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and it is possible that they will be interpreted and applied in ways that may adversely affect our business and operating results.
In the U.S., various federal and state regulators, including governmental agencies like the Federal Trade Commission, have adopted, or are considering adopting, laws, regulations and standards concerning personal information, privacy and data security. Internationally, laws, regulations and standards in many jurisdictions apply broadly to the collection, use, retention, security, disclosure, transfer and other processing of personal information or other data. These various and evolving federal, state and international laws, regulations and standards can differ significantly from one another and, given our global footprint, this may significantly complicate our compliance efforts and impose considerable costs, such as costs related to organizational changes and implementing additional protection technologies, which are likely to increase over time. In addition, compliance with applicable requirements may require us to modify our data processing practices and policies, distract management or divert resources from other initiatives and projects, all of which could adversely affect our business and operating results. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with any applicable federal, state or international laws, regulations, standards, or contractual or other obligations, relating to data privacy and security could result in damage to our reputation and our relationship with our customers, as well as proceedings or litigation by governmental agencies, customers or individuals, which could subject us to significant fines, sanctions, awards, penalties or judgments, all of which could adversely affect our business and operating results.
An inability to obtain, maintain, protect, defend or enforce our intellectual property rights could adversely affect our business.
There can be no assurance that the steps we take to obtain, maintain, protect, defend and enforce our intellectual property rights will be completely adequate. Our intellectual property rights may fail to provide us with significant competitive advantages, particularly in foreign jurisdictions where we have not invested in an intellectual property portfolio or that do not have, or do not enforce, strong intellectual property rights. The weakening of protection of our trademarks, patents, trade secrets and other intellectual property rights could also adversely affect our business.
We are a party to a number of licenses that give us rights to intellectual property that is necessary or useful to our business. Our success depends in part on the ability of our licensors to obtain, maintain, protect, defend and sufficiently enforce the licensed intellectual property rights we have commercialized. Without protection for the intellectual property rights we own or license, other companies might be able to offer substantially identical products for sale, which could adversely affect our competitive business position and harm our business products. Also, there can be no assurances that we will be able to obtain or renew from third parties the licenses to use intellectual property rights we need in the future, and there is no assurance that such licenses can be obtained on reasonable terms. We would be adversely affected in the event that any such license agreement was terminated without the right for us to continue using the licensed intellectual property.
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Increased cybersecurity vulnerabilities and threats, and more sophisticated and targeted cyber attacks and other security incidents, pose risks to our systems, data and business, and our relationships with customers and other third parties.
In the course of conducting our business, we may hold or have access to sensitive, confidential, proprietary or personal data or information belonging to us, our employees or third parties, including customers, partners or suppliers. Increased cybersecurity vulnerabilities and threats, and more sophisticated and targeted cyber attacks and other security incidents, pose risks to our and our customers’, partners’, suppliers’ and third-party service providers’ systems, data, and business, and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our and our employees’ and customers’ data. We utilize various procedures and controls to monitor and mitigate our exposure including the engagement of third party security experts for risk assessments and program enhancements, including ransomware vulnerability assessments, cybersecurity tabletop exercises, and internal phishing awareness campaigns. While we attempt to mitigate these risks, we remain vulnerable to cyber attacks and other security incidents, including ransomware incidents. Given our global footprint, the large number of customers, partners, suppliers and service providers with which we do business, and the increasing sophistication and complexity of cyber attacks, a cyber attack could occur and persist for an extended period without detection. Any investigation of a cyber attack or other security incident would be inherently unpredictable and it would take time before the completion of any investigation and before there is availability of full and reliable information. During such time we would not necessarily know the extent of the harm or how best to remediate it, and certain errors or actions could be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and remediated, all or any of which would further increase the costs and consequences of a cyber attack or other security incident. We may be required to expend significant resources to protect against, respond to, and recover from any cyber attacks and other security incidents. As cyber attacks continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. In addition, our remediation efforts may not be successful. The inability to implement, maintain and upgrade adequate safeguards could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition to our own systems, we use third-party service providers, who in turn may also use third-party providers, to process certain data or information on our behalf. Due to applicable laws and regulations or contractual obligations, we may be held responsible for cybersecurity incidents attributed to our service providers to the extent affecting information we share with them. Although we contractually require these service providers to implement and maintain reasonable security measures, we cannot control third parties and cannot guarantee that a security breach will not occur in their systems.
Despite our and our service providers’ efforts to protect our data and information, we and our service providers have been and may in the future be vulnerable to security breaches, ransomware attacks, theft, misplaced or lost data, programming errors, phishing attacks, denial of service attacks, acts of vandalism, computer viruses, malware, employee errors and/or malfeasance or similar events, including those perpetrated by criminals or nation-state actors, that could potentially lead to the compromise, unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification or destruction of data or information, improper use of our systems, defective products, loss of access to our data, production downtimes and operational disruptions. In addition, a cyber attack or any other significant compromise or breach of our data security, media reports about such an incident, whether accurate or not, or, under certain circumstances, our failure to make adequate or timely disclosures to the public, law enforcement agencies or affected individuals following any such event, whether due to delayed discovery or a failure to follow existing protocols, could adversely impact our operating results and result in other negative consequences, including damage to our reputation or competitiveness, harm to our relationships with customers, partners, suppliers and other third parties, distraction to our management, remediation or increased protection costs, significant litigation or regulatory action, fines and penalties. Given the increased prevalence of customer-imposed cybersecurity controls and other related contractual obligations towards customers or other third parties, a cyber attack or other security incident also could result in breach of contract or indemnity claims against us by customers or other counterparties.
While we currently maintain cybersecurity insurance, such insurance may not be sufficient in type or amount to cover us against claims related to cybersecurity breaches or attacks, failures or other data security-related incidents, and we cannot be certain that cyber insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that an insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
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INDUSTRY AND MARKET RISKS
Volatility of oil and natural gas prices can adversely affect demand for our products and services.
Prices of oil and gas products are set on a commodity basis. As a result, the volatility in oil and natural gas prices can impact our customers’ activity levels and spending for our products and services. Current energy prices are important contributors to cash flow for our customers and their ability to fund exploration and development activities. Expectations about future prices and price volatility are important for determining future spending levels.
Demand for our products and services is subject to factors beyond our control and depends substantially on expenditures by our customers. Changes in the global economy could impact our customers’ spending levels and our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Demand for our services and products is highly correlated with global economic growth and substantially dependent on the levels of expenditures by our customers. Across our products and services, customer demand may be reduced due to global economic factors beyond our control, including but not limited to inflation, rising interest rates, fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, and declining availability of credit. Specifically, for example, past oil and natural gas industry downturns have resulted in reduced demand for oilfield products and services and lower expenditures by our customers, which in the past has resulted, and may in the future result, in a prolonged reduction in oil and natural gas prices that may require us to record asset impairments, and we could experience decreased revenue, decreased profitability and reduction in cash flows. Such potential impairment charges and adverse operating metrics could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Supply of oil and natural gas is subject to factors beyond our control, which may adversely affect our operating results.
Productive capacity for oil and natural gas is dependent on our customers’ decisions to develop and produce oil and natural gas reserves and on the regulatory environment in which our customers and we operate. The ability to produce oil and natural gas can be affected by the number and productivity of new wells drilled and completed, as well as the rate of production and resulting depletion of existing wells.
Currency fluctuations or devaluations may impact our operating results.
Fluctuations or devaluations in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar can impact our revenue and our costs of doing business and create volatility, as well as the costs of doing business of our customers.
Changes in economic and/or market conditions may impact our ability to borrow and/or cost of borrowing.
The condition of the capital markets and equity markets in general may affect our ability to obtain financing, if necessary. If our credit rating is downgraded, it could increase borrowing costs under credit facilities and commercial paper programs, as well as increase the cost of renewing or obtaining, or make it more difficult to renew, obtain, or issue new debt financing.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We own or lease numerous properties throughout the world. We consider our manufacturing plants, equipment assembly, maintenance and overhaul facilities, grinding plants, drilling fluids and chemical processing centers, and primary research and technology centers to be our principal properties. The following sets forth the location of our principal owned or leased facilities for our business segments as of December 31, 2022:
|Oilfield Services & Equipment:|
Houston, Pasadena, and The Woodlands, Texas; Broken Arrow and Claremore, Oklahoma - all located in the United States; Leduc, Canada; Celle, Germany; Tananger, Norway; Aberdeen and Montrose, Scotland; Nailsea and Newcastle, England; Macae and Niteroi, Brazil; Singapore, Singapore; Suzhou, China; Kakinada, India; Abu Dhabi and Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Dammam and Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Luanda, Angola; Port Harcourt, Nigeria
|Industrial & Energy Technology:|
Deer Park, Texas; Jacksonville, Florida; Billerica, Massachusetts; Minden, Nevada; Longmont, Colorado; Twinsburg, Ohio - all located in the United States; Florence, Massa, Bari, and Talamona, Italy; Le Creusot, France; Leicester and Cramlington, England; Shannon, Ireland; Hurth and Wunstorf, Germany; Shanghai, China; Coimbatore, India
We own or lease numerous other facilities such as service centers, blend plants, workshops and sales and administrative offices throughout the geographic regions in which we operate. We also have a significant investment in service vehicles, tools and manufacturing and other equipment. All of our owned properties are unencumbered. We believe that our facilities are well maintained and suitable for their intended purposes.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information with respect to Item 3. Legal Proceedings is contained in "Note 17. Commitments and Contingencies" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Our barite mining operations, in support of our OFSE segment, are subject to regulation by the Federal Mine Safety and Health Administration under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Information concerning mine safety violations or other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and Item 104 of Regulation S-K is included in Exhibit 95 to this annual report.
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ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
None of our Units are traded on any exchange.
ITEM 6. [RESERVED]
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A") should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data contained herein.
We are an energy technology company with a broad and diversified portfolio of technologies and services that span the energy and industrial value chain. We operate through our two business segments: Oilfield Services & Equipment ("OFSE") and Industrial & Energy Technology ("IET"). We sell products and services primarily in the global oil and gas markets, within the upstream, midstream, and downstream segments.
Baker Hughes was successful in 2022, with key commercial successes and solid margin improvements in OFSE. Commercially in IET, orders performance in LNG and new energy hit new highs and are poised to remain strong into 2023. In 2022, we had a record year for LNG equipment orders, and achieved significant growth in new energy orders compared to 2021. Within OFSE, Subsea & Surface Pressure Systems also achieved a strong orders year compared to 2021.
Operationally, our performance for 2022 was mixed. During the year, we experienced several operational challenges across our organization most notably cost inflation, supply chain delays, impact of foreign exchange, and the suspension of our activities in Russia. Our performance improved over the second half of 2022 as supply chain challenges moderated, we saw increased activity primarily in OFSE, and we were able to achieve price improvements that collectively more than offset these operational challenges.
In 2022, we generated revenue of $21.2 billion, compared to $20.5 billion in 2021. The increase in revenue was primarily driven by higher volume in OFSE. Operating income in 2022 was $1,185 million compared to $1,310 million in 2021. The decrease in operating income was driven by higher restructuring, impairment and other charges, partially offset by higher segment operating income in OFSE. Income before income taxes was $52 million in 2022, and included other non-operating losses of $881 million and net interest expense of $252 million. Included in our other non-operating loss was a $451 million loss from the sale of part of the OFSE Russia business, and $265 million of unrealized net losses from marking our investments in ADNOC Drilling and C3 AI to fair value.
In the third quarter of 2022, we announced a reorganization of the Company to create two operating segments, OFSE and IET. This has kicked off a major transformation effort across the organization, including key management changes, which will fundamentally improve the way the Company operates. This reorganization is designed to simplify and streamline our organizational structure, and create better flexibility and economies of scale across the two operating segments. For OFSE, one area of focus will be right sizing OFSE through facility rationalization, removing management layers, and integrating multiple functions and capabilities. For IET, we expect commercial and technological benefits from closer integration as well as the benefit of cost out programs. We expect these changes to improve the long-term optionality and growth opportunities for Baker Hughes as our markets and customers continue to evolve.
Baker Hughes remains committed to a flexible capital allocation policy that balances returning cash to Members and investing in growth opportunities. We increased our quarterly distribution in the fourth quarter of 2022 by one cent to $0.19 per Unit. For the full year of 2022, we returned a total of $1.6 billion to Members in the form of distributions and Unit repurchases. We continue to invest in the Baker Hughes portfolio through strategic
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acquisitions and early-stage new energy investments. In 2022, we made several strategic acquisitions that will complement our current portfolio. Such acquisitions include the Power Generation division of BRUSH Group (“BRUSH”). BRUSH is an established equipment manufacturer that specializes in electric power generation and management for the industrial and energy sectors, which will complement the IET existing portfolio. Other transactions include the acquisitions of Quest Integrity, which will enhance our inspection capabilities, and AccessESP, which broadens our electrical submersible pump ("ESP") technology portfolio. New energy investments include Mosaic Materials and NET Power. In 2022, we entered into an agreement to acquire Altus Intervention, a leading international provider of well intervention services and downhole technology, which will enhance OFSE's existing portfolio. The Altus transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2023. We also reached an agreement with GE for the sale of our Nexus Controls business. GE will continue to provide Baker Hughes with GE’s MarkTM controls products currently in the Nexus Controls portfolio, and we will be the exclusive supplier and service provider of such GE products for our oil and gas customers’ control needs. The transaction is expected to close in mid-2023.
The invasion of Ukraine by Russia and the sanctions imposed in response to this crisis have increased the level of economic and political uncertainty. As we announced in March 2022, we suspended any new investments for our Russia operations. Over the course of 2022, changes to sanctions continued to make ongoing operations increasingly complex and significantly more challenging. As a result, we took actions to suspend substantially all of our operational activities related to Russia across the Company including suspending work on equipment and service contracts in Russia, and we completed the sale of part of our OFSE Russia business to local management in the fourth quarter of 2022. Russia represented approximately 2%, 5%, and 5% of our total revenue in 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively.
As we look ahead to 2023, the global economy is expected to experience some challenges under the weight of inflationary pressures and tightening monetary conditions. Despite recessionary pressures in some of the world’s largest economies, we maintain a positive outlook for the energy sector. With years of under investment now being amplified by recent geopolitical factors, global spare capacity for oil and gas has deteriorated and will likely require years of investment growth to meet forecasted future demand. For this reason, we continue to believe that we are in the early stages of a multi-year upturn in global activity and are poised to see a second consecutive year of strong growth in global upstream spending in 2023.
We remain positive on the near term and long term prospects for the natural gas and LNG investment cycle. Near term, we believe that the likely reopening of China, combined with Europe’s need to refill gas storage supplies, will play a critical role in keeping global gas and LNG markets tight. Longer term, we remain optimistic on the structural growth outlook for natural gas and LNG as the world looks to lower emissions and displace the consumption of coal. In addition to the strong growth in traditional oil and gas spending, we also believe that the Inflation Reduction Act in the U.S. and potential new legislation in Europe will support significant growth opportunities in new energy in 2023 and beyond.
Our business is exposed to a number of macro factors, which influence our outlook and expectations given the current volatile conditions in the industry. All of our outlook expectations are purely based on the market as we see it today, and are subject to changing conditions in the industry.
•OFSE North America activity: We expect North American spending to continue to improve in 2023, as compared to 2022, should commodity prices remain at current levels.
•OFSE International activity: We expect spending outside of North America to experience strong growth in 2023, as compared to 2022, should commodity prices remain at current levels.
•IET LNG projects: We remain optimistic on the LNG market long-term and view natural gas as a transition and destination fuel. We continue to view the long-term economics of the LNG industry as positive.
We have other businesses in our portfolio that are more correlated with various industrial metrics, including global GDP growth. We also have businesses within our portfolio that are exposed to new energy solutions, specifically focused around reducing carbon emissions of energy and broader industry, including hydrogen,
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC 2022 Form 10-K | 27
geothermal, carbon capture, utilization and storage, and energy storage. We expect to see continued growth in these businesses as new energy solutions become a more prevalent part of the broader energy mix.
Overall, we believe our portfolio is well positioned to compete across the energy value chain and deliver comprehensive solutions for our customers. We remain optimistic about the long-term economics of the oil and gas industry, but we are continuing to operate with flexibility. Over time, we believe the world’s demand for energy will continue to rise, and that hydrocarbons will play a major role in meeting the world's energy needs for the foreseeable future. As such, we remain focused on delivering innovative, low-emission, and cost-effective solutions that deliver step changes in operating and economic performance for our customers.
The following discussion and analysis summarizes the significant factors affecting our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity position as of and for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes of the Company.
Our revenue is predominately generated from the sale of products and services to major, national, and independent oil and natural gas companies worldwide, and is dependent on spending by our customers for oil and natural gas exploration, field development and production. This spending is driven by a number of factors, including our customers' forecasts of future energy demand and supply, their access to resources to develop and produce oil and natural gas, their ability to fund their capital programs, the impact of new government regulations and most importantly, their expectations for oil and natural gas prices as a key driver of their cash flows.
Oil and Natural Gas Prices
Oil and natural gas prices are summarized in the table below as averages of the daily closing prices during each of the periods indicated.
Brent oil prices ($/Bbl) (1)
|$||100.93 ||$||70.86 ||$||41.96 |
WTI oil prices ($/Bbl) (2)
|94.90 ||68.14 ||39.16 |
Natural gas prices ($/mmBtu) (3)
|6.45 ||3.89 ||2.03 |
(1)Energy Information Administration ("EIA") Europe Brent Spot Price per Barrel
(2)EIA Cushing, OK WTI ("West Texas Intermediate") spot price
(3)EIA Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price per million British Thermal Unit
Oil and natural gas prices increased during 2022 largely driven by supply constraints which has also been amplified as a result of recent geopolitical events.
Outside North America, customer spending is most heavily influenced by Brent oil prices. The average Brent oil prices increased to $100.93/Bbl in 2022 from $70.86/Bbl in 2021 and ranged from a low of $76.02/Bbl in December 2022, to a high of $133.18/Bbl in March 2022. The average Brent oil prices increased to $70.86/Bbl in 2021 from $41.96/Bbl in 2020 and ranged from a low of $50.37/Bbl in January 2021, to a high of $85.76/Bbl in October 2021.
In North America, customer spending is highly driven by WTI oil prices, which similarly to Brent oil prices, on average increased to $94.90/Bbl in 2022 from $68.14/Bbl in 2021, and ranged from a low of $71.05/Bbl in December 2022, to a high of $123.64/Bbl in March 2022. WTI oil prices on average increased to $68.14/Bbl in 2021 from $39.16/Bbl in 2020, and ranged from a low of $47.47/Bbl in January 2021, to a high of $85.64/Bbl in October 2021.
In North America, natural gas prices, as measured by the Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price, averaged $6.45/mmBtu in 2022, representing a 66% increase over the prior year. Throughout the year, Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Prices ranged from a high of $9.85/mmBtu in August 2022, to a low of $3.46/mmBtu in November 2022. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, working natural gas in storage at the end of 2022 was 2,891 billion
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC 2022 Form 10-K | 28
cubic feet ("Bcf"), which was 9.5%, or 304 Bcf, below the corresponding week in 2021. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price averaged $3.89/mmBtu in 2021, representing a 92% increase over the prior year. Throughout the year, Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Prices ranged from a high of $23.86/mmBtu in February 2021, to a low of $2.43/mmBtu in April 2021. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, working natural gas in storage at the end of 2021 was 3,226 billion cubic feet ("Bcf"), which was 6.8%, or 234 Bcf, below the corresponding week in 2020.
Baker Hughes Rig Count
The Baker Hughes rig counts are an important business barometer for the drilling industry and its suppliers. When drilling rigs are active they consume products and services produced by the oil service industry. Rig count trends are driven by the exploration and development spending by oil and natural gas companies, which in turn is influenced by current and future price expectations for oil and natural gas. The counts may reflect the relative strength and stability of energy prices and overall market activity, however, these counts should not be solely relied on as other specific and pervasive conditions may exist that affect overall energy prices and market activity.
We have been providing rig counts to the public since 1944. We gather all relevant data through our field service personnel, who obtain the necessary data from routine visits to the various rigs, customers, contractors and other outside sources as necessary. We base the classification of a well as either oil or natural gas primarily upon filings made by operators in the relevant jurisdiction. This data is then compiled and distributed to various wire services and trade associations and is published on our website. We believe the counting process and resulting data is reliable, however, it is subject to our ability to obtain accurate and timely information. Rig counts are compiled weekly for the U.S. and Canada and monthly for all international rigs. Published international rig counts do not include rigs drilling in certain locations, such as onshore China because this information is not readily available.
Rigs in the U.S. and Canada are counted as active if, on the day the count is taken, the well being drilled has been started, but drilling has not been completed and the well is anticipated to be of sufficient depth to be a potential consumer of our drill bits. In international areas, rigs are counted on a weekly basis and deemed active if drilling activities occurred during the majority of the week. The weekly results are then averaged for the month and published accordingly. The rig count does not include rigs that are in transit from one location to another, rigging up, being used in non-drilling activities including production testing, completion and workover, and are not expected to be significant consumers of drill bits.
The rig counts are summarized in the table below as averages for each of the periods indicated.
|North America||898 ||610 ||522 |
|International||851 ||756 ||827 |
|Worldwide||1,749 ||1,366 ||1,349 |
2022 Compared to 2021
Overall the rig count was 1,749 in 2022, an increase of 28% as compared to 2021 due to an increase in activity in North America and internationally. The rig count in North America increased 47% and the international rig count increased 13% in 2022 compared to 2021.
Within North America, the increase was primarily driven by the U.S. rig count, which was up 51% on average when compared to the same period last year, and an increase in the Canada rig count, which was up 32% on average. Internationally, the increase in the rig count was driven by increases in the Latin America region, Africa region, Middle East region, and Asia-Pacific region of 22%, 19%, 16%, and 8%, respectively.
2021 Compared to 2020
Overall the rig count was 1,366 in 2021, an increase of 1% as compared to 2020 due primarily to an increase in activity in North America partially offset by declines internationally. The rig count in North America increased 17% and the international rig count decreased 9% in 2021 compared to 2020.
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC 2022 Form 10-K | 29
Within North America, the increase was primarily driven by the Canadian rig count, which was up 48% on average when compared to the same period last year, and an increase in the U.S. rig count, which was up 10% on average. Internationally, the decrease in the rig count was driven primarily by decreases in the Middle East region, Africa region, and Europe region of 21%, 10%, and 10%, respectively.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The discussions below relating to significant line items from our consolidated statements of income (loss) are based on available information and represent our analysis of significant changes or events that impact the comparability of reported amounts. Where appropriate, we have identified specific events and changes that affect comparability or trends and, where reasonably practicable, have quantified the impact of such items. In addition, the discussions below for revenue and cost of revenue are on a total basis as the business drivers for product sales and services are similar. All dollar amounts in tabulations in this section are in millions of dollars, unless otherwise stated. Certain columns and rows may not add due to the use of rounded numbers.
Our results of operations are evaluated by the Chief Executive Officer on a consolidated basis as well as at the segment level. The performance of our operating segments is primarily evaluated based on segment operating income (loss), which is defined as income (loss) before income taxes and before the following: net interest expense, net other non-operating income (loss), corporate expenses, restructuring, impairment and other charges, goodwill and inventory impairments, separation related costs, and certain gains and losses not allocated to the operating segments.
In evaluating the segment performance, the Company uses the following:
Volume: Volume is the increase or decrease in products and/or services sold period-over-period excluding the impact of foreign exchange and price. The volume impact on profit is calculated by multiplying the prior period profit rate by the change in revenue volume between the current and prior period. It also includes price, defined as the change in sales price for a comparable product or service period-over-period and is calculated as the period-over-period change in sales prices of comparable products and services.
Foreign Exchange ("FX"): FX measures the translational foreign exchange impact, or the translation impact of the period-over-period change on sales and costs directly attributable to change in the foreign exchange rate compared to the U.S. dollar. FX impact is calculated by multiplying the functional currency amounts (revenue or profit) with the period-over-period FX rate variance, using the average exchange rate for the respective period.
(Inflation)/Deflation: (Inflation)/deflation is defined as the increase or decrease in direct and indirect costs of the same type for an equal amount of volume. It is calculated as the year-over-year change in cost (i.e. price paid) of direct material, compensation and benefits, and overhead costs.
Productivity: Productivity is measured by the remaining variance in profit, after adjusting for the period-over-period impact of volume and price, foreign exchange and (inflation)/deflation as defined above. Improved or lower period-over-period cost productivity is the result of cost efficiencies or inefficiencies, such as cost decreasing or increasing more than volume, or cost increasing or decreasing less than volume, or changes in sales mix among segments. This also includes the period-over-period variance of transactional foreign exchange, aside from those foreign currency devaluations that are reported separately for business evaluation purposes.
Orders and Remaining Performance Obligations
Our consolidated statements of income (loss) displays sales and costs of sales in accordance with SEC regulations under which “goods” is required to include all sales of tangible products and “services” must include all other sales, including other services activities. For the amounts shown below, we distinguish between “equipment” and “product services,” where product services refers to sales under product services agreements, including sales of both goods (such as spare parts and equipment upgrades) and related services (such as monitoring, maintenance and repairs), which is an important part of our operations. We refer to “product services” simply as “services” within Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
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Orders: We recognized orders of $26.8 billion, $21.7 billion, and $20.7 billion in 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. We recognized OFSE orders of $14.1 billion, $11.8 billion, and $12.3 billion and IET orders of $12.7 billion, $9.9 billion, and $8.4 billion in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Within IET, Gas Technology Equipment orders were $6.4 billion, $3.9 billion, $3.0 billion, and Gas Technology Services orders were $3.0 billion, $2.9 billion, and $2.6 billion in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Remaining Performance Obligations ("RPO"): As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to the unsatisfied (or partially unsatisfied) performance obligations was $27.8 billion and $23.6 billion, respectively. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, OFSE remaining performance obligations totaled $2.6 billion and $2.0 billion, and IET remaining performance obligations totaled $25.3 billion and $21.5 billion, respectively.
Revenue and Operating Income
Summarized financial information for the Company's segments is shown in the following tables.
|Year Ended December 31,||$ Change|
|2022||2021||2020||From 2021 to 2022||From 2020 to 2021|
|Well Construction||$||3,854 ||$||3,301 ||$||3,257 ||$||553 ||$||44 |
|Completions, Intervention & Measurements||3,559 ||3,106 ||3,614 ||453 ||(508)|
|Production Solutions||3,587 ||3,135 ||3,269 ||452 ||(134)|
|Subsea & Surface Pressure Systems||2,230 ||2,486 ||2,844 ||(256)||(358)|
|Oilfield Services & Equipment||13,229 ||12,028 ||12,984 ||1,201 ||(956)|
|Gas Technology - Equipment||2,560 ||2,916 ||2,421 ||(356)||495 |
|Gas Technology - Services||2,441 ||2,700 ||2,475 ||(259)||225 |
|Total Gas Technology||5,002 ||5,616 ||4,896 ||(614)||720 |
|Condition Monitoring||545 ||562 ||581 ||(17)||(19)|
|Inspection||995 ||949 ||865 ||46 ||84 |
|Pumps, Valves & Gears||826 ||801 ||809 ||25 ||(8)|
|PSI & Controls||559 ||546 ||570 ||13 ||(23)|
|Total Industrial Technology||2,925 ||2,857 ||2,824 ||68 ||34 |
|Industrial & Energy Technology||7,926 ||8,473 ||7,721 ||(547)||754 |
|Total||$||21,156 ||$||20,502 ||$||20,705 ||$||654 ||$||(203)|
The following table presents Oilfield Services & Equipment revenue by geographic region:
|Year Ended December 31,||$ Change|
|2022||2021||2020||From 2021 to 2022||From 2020 to 2021|
|North America||$||3,764 ||$||2,904 ||$||3,107 ||$||860 ||$||(203)|
|Latin America||2,099 ||1,681 ||1,447 ||418 ||234 |
|Europe/CIS/Sub-Saharan Africa||2,483 ||2,865 ||2,846 ||(382)||19 |
|Middle East/Asia||4,883 ||4,579 ||5,584 ||304 ||(1,005)|
|Oilfield Services & Equipment||$||13,229 ||$||12,028 ||$||12,984 ||$||1,201 ||$||(956)|
|North America||$||3,764 ||$||2,904 ||$||3,107 ||$||860 ||$||(203)|
|International||9,465 ||9,124 ||9,877 ||341 ||(753)|
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The following table presents segment operating income through to net loss for the Company.
|Year Ended December 31,||$ Change|
|2022||2021||2020||From 2021 to 2022||From 2020 to 2021|
Segment operating income:
|Oilfield Services & Equipment||$||1,201 ||$||830 ||$||506 ||$||371 ||$||324 |
|Industrial & Energy Technology||1,135 ||1,177 ||998 ||(42)||178 |
|Total segment operating income ||2,336 ||2,006 ||1,504 ||330 ||502 |
|Corporate||(416)||(429)||(464)||13 ||35 |
Inventory impairment (1)
|(31)||— ||(246)||(31)||246 |
|Goodwill impairment||— ||— ||(14,717)||— ||14,717 |
|Restructuring, impairment and other||(682)||(209)||(1,866)||(473)||1,657 |
|Separation related||(23)||(60)||(134)||37 ||74 |
|Operating income (loss)||1,185 ||1,310 ||(15,922)||(125)||17,233 |
|Other non-operating income (loss), net||(881)||(583)||1,040 ||(298)||(1,623)|
|Interest expense, net||(252)||(299)||(264)||47 ||(35)|
|Income (loss) before income taxes||52 ||428 ||(15,146)||(376)||15,574 |
|Provision for income taxes||(554)||(772)||(650)||218 ||(122)|
|Net loss||$||(502)||$||(344)||$||(15,796)||$||(158)||$||15,452 |
(1)Inventory impairments are reported in "Cost of goods sold" of the consolidated statements of income (loss).
Fiscal Year 2022 to Fiscal Year 2021
Revenue in 2022 was $21,156 million, an increase of $654 million, or 3%, from 2021. This increase in revenue was largely a result of increased activity in OFSE, partially offset by a decline in IET. OFSE increased $1,201 million and IET decreased $547 million.
Total segment operating income in 2022 was $2,336 million, an increase of $330 million, or 16%, from 2021. The increase was primarily driven by OFSE, which increased $371 million, partially offset by IET which decreased $42 million.
Oilfield Services & Equipment
OFSE 2022 revenue was $13,229 million, an increase of $1,201 million, or 10%, from 2021, primarily as a result of increased activity in North America and internationally, as evidenced by an increase in the global rig count. North America revenue was $3,764 million in 2022, an increase of $860 million from 2021. International revenue was $9,465 million in 2022, an increase of $341 million from 2021, primarily driven by growth in Latin America and the Middle East, partially offset by declines in the Russia Caspian and Europe regions. The year-over-year revenue was reduced by the removal of the subsea drilling systems ("SDS") business from the consolidated OFSE operations in the fourth quarter of 2021 due to the formation of a joint venture.
OFSE 2022 segment operating income was $1,201 million, compared to $830 million in 2021. The increase was primarily driven by higher volume and price, partially offset by logistics and commodity cost inflation.
Industrial & Energy Technology
IET 2022 revenue was $7,926 million, a decrease of $547 million, or 6%, from 2021. The decrease was primarily driven by lower volume in both Gas Technology Equipment and Gas Technology Services, the impact from foreign currency translation, and supply chain delays in Gas Technology Services, partially offset by higher volume in Industrial Technology.
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IET 2022 segment operating income was $1,135 million, compared to $1,177 million in 2021. The decrease in profitability was driven by lower volume, unfavorable foreign currency translation impact, higher research and development costs, and inflationary pressure, partially offset by favorable business mix and higher pricing in certain product lines.
In 2022, corporate expenses were $416 million, a decrease of $13 million compared to 2021, primarily driven by cost efficiencies and past restructuring actions.
In 2022, we recorded inventory impairments of $31 million primarily in IET as part of suspending our Russia operations. Inventory impairments are reported in the "Cost of goods sold" caption of the consolidated statements of income (loss). There were no inventory impairments during 2021.
Restructuring, Impairment and Other
In 2022, we recognized $682 million of restructuring, impairment and other charges, primarily related to the suspension of substantially all of our operations in Russia, as well as, costs incurred to facilitate our reorganization into two segments and the implementation of certain projects in our OFSE segment to optimize their global footprint. In addition, we impaired certain long-lived assets in our OFSE segment for the subsea production systems ("SPS") business due to a decrease in the estimated future cash flows driven by a decline in our long-term market outlook for this business. In 2021, we recognized $209 million in restructuring, impairment and other charges. The charges in 2021 primarily related to the initiatives in our OFSE segment that were the continuation of our overall strategy to right-size our structural costs.
We recorded $23 million of separation related costs in 2022, a decrease of $37 million from the prior year. Costs relate to the activities for the separation from GE, primarily related to information technology. Separation activities were substantially completed by the end of 2022.
Other Non-Operating Loss, Net
In 2022, we recorded $881 million of other non-operating loss, an increase of $298 million from the prior year, primarily due to the loss of $451 million from the sale of part of the OFSE business in Russia. We also recorded $265 million of unrealized losses related to marking our investments in C3 AI and ADNOC to fair value. Additionally, in December 2022, the Company, Baker Hughes and GE entered into an agreement which resulted in the termination of the Tax Matters Agreement ("TMA"), and as a result, we recorded a charge of $59 million, of which $21 million was a cash payment to GE as a net settlement of claims asserted under the TMA. See "Note 11. Income Taxes" for further information.
Interest Expense, Net
In 2022, we incurred interest expense, net of interest income, of $252 million, a decrease of $47 million from the prior year, driven primarily by higher interest income, and lower interest expense due to $28 million of non-recurring costs in 2021 associated with the refinancing of our senior notes.
In 2022, our provision for income taxes was $554 million. The difference between the U.S. statutory tax rate of 21% and the effective tax rate is primarily related to losses with no tax benefit due to valuation allowances, restructuring charges for which a majority has no tax benefit, and earnings in jurisdictions with tax rates higher than the U.S. In addition, since we are a partnership for U.S. federal tax purposes, any tax benefits associated with U.S. losses are recognized by our Members and not reflected in our tax expense.
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In 2021, our provision for income taxes was $772 million. The difference between the U.S. statutory tax rate of 21% and the effective tax rate is primarily related to losses with no tax benefit due to valuation allowances and changes in unrecognized tax benefits related to uncertain tax positions.
Fiscal Year 2021 to Fiscal Year 2020
Revenue in 2021 was $20,502 million, a decrease of $203 million, or 1%, from 2020. This decrease in revenue was largely a result of decreased activity in OFSE, partially offset by an increase in IET. OFSE decreased $956 million and IET increased $754 million.
Total segment operating income in 2021 was $2,006 million, an increase of $502 million, or 33%, from 2020. The increase was driven by OFSE, which increased $324 million, and IET, which increased $178 million.
Oilfield Services & Equipment
OFSE 2021 revenue was $12,028 million, a decrease of $956 million, or 7%, from 2020, primarily as a result of decreased international activity in 2021 compared to 2020, as evidenced by a decline in the corresponding rig count, and, to a lesser extent, decreased activity in North America, and supply chain constraints that occurred in the second half of 2021. International revenue was $9,124 million in 2021, a decrease of $753 million from 2020, primarily driven by declines in the Middle East, partially offset by growth in Latin America. North America revenue was $2,904 million in 2021, a decrease of $203 million from 2020. The decrease in revenue was also driven by the disposition of the surface pressure control flow business in the fourth quarter of 2020, and the removal of SDS from consolidated OFSE operations in the fourth quarter of 2021 due to the formation of a joint venture.
OFSE 2021 segment operating income was $830 million, compared to $506 million in 2020. The increase was primarily driven by higher cost productivity as a result of cost efficiencies and restructuring actions. Additional drivers were increases in price in certain product lines, partially offset by lower volume.
Industrial & Energy Technology
IET 2021 revenue was $8,473 million, an increase of $754 million, or 10%, from 2020. The increase was primarily driven by higher volume for both Gas Technology Equipment and Gas Technology Services, partially offset by supply chain constraints that impacted product deliveries, mainly in the Industrial Technology product lines.
IET 2021 segment operating income was $1,177 million, compared to $998 million in 2020. The increase in profitability was driven primarily by higher volume, price, and productivity, partially offset by unfavorable business mix.
In 2021, corporate expenses were $429 million, a decrease of $35 million compared to 2020, primarily driven by lower expenses as a result of cost out programs and restructuring actions.
There were no inventory impairments during 2021. In 2020, we recorded inventory impairments of $246 million primarily related to our OFSE segment as a result of certain restructuring activities initiated by the Company. Charges for inventory impairments are reported in the "Cost of goods sold" caption of the consolidated statements of income (loss).
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There were no goodwill impairments during 2021. During the first quarter of 2020, Baker Hughes' market capitalization declined significantly driven by current macroeconomic and geopolitical conditions including the decrease in demand caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and collapse of oil prices driven by both surplus production and supply. Based on these events, we concluded that a triggering event occurred and we performed an interim quantitative impairment test as of March 31, 2020. Based upon the results of the impairment test, we recognized a goodwill impairment charge of $14,717 million during the first quarter of 2020. There were no other goodwill impairments during 2020.
Restructuring, Impairment and Other
In 2021, we recognized $209 million in restructuring, impairment and other charges. The charges in 2021 primarily relate to the initiatives in our OFSE segment that are the continuation of our overall strategy to right-size our structural costs. In 2020, we recognized $1,866 million in restructuring, impairment and other charges. These charges primarily related to the restructuring plan announced in the first quarter of 2020, which included product line rationalization actions, headcount reductions in certain geographical locations, and other initiatives to right-size operations for anticipated activity levels and market conditions.
We recorded $60 million of separation related costs in 2021, a decrease of $74 million from the prior year, largely driven by a reduction in the ongoing activities for the separation from GE, primarily related to information technology.
Other Non-Operating Income/(Loss), Net
In 2021, we recorded $583 million of other non-operating loss. Costs in 2021 include an unrealized loss of $1,085 million from marking our investment in C3 AI to fair value, partially offset by an unrealized gain of $241 million from marking our investment in ADNOC Drilling to fair value, by the reversal of $121 million of current accruals due to the settlement of certain legal matters, and by income of $121 million for liabilities previously expected to be recoverable as they were indemnified under the TMA with GE. This income from indemnified liabilities has an offset in the "Provision for income taxes" caption in our consolidated statements of income (loss).
In 2020, we recorded $1,040 million of other non-operating income. Included in this amount was an unrealized gain of $1,417 million related to marking our investment in C3 AI to fair value, partially offset by losses of $353 million for the sale of two product lines in OFSE, the rod lift systems business and the surface pressure control flow business.
Interest Expense, Net
In 2021, we incurred net interest expense of $299 million, an increase of $35 million from the prior year, primarily driven by higher interest expense, mainly related to $28 million of costs associated with the refinancing of our senior notes due December 2022, and lower interest income.
In 2021, our income tax expense was $772 million, an increase of $122 million, from $650 million in 2020. The increase was primarily due to tax expense related to unrecognized tax benefits and the geographical mix of earnings. Our 2021 income tax expense included $121 million that we previously expected to be recoverable as it related to liabilities indemnified under the TMA with GE. This tax expense has an offset in the "Other non-operating income (loss), net" caption in our consolidated statements of income (loss). In addition, since we are a partnership for U.S. federal tax purposes, any tax benefits associated with U.S. losses are recognized by our members and not reflected in our tax expense.
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In the conduct of all of our activities, we are committed to maintaining the core values of our Company, as well as high safety, ethical, and quality standards as also reported in our Quality Management System ("QMS"). We believe such a commitment is integral to running a sound, successful, and sustainable business. We devote significant resources to maintain a comprehensive global ethics and compliance program ("Compliance Program") which is designed to prevent, detect, and appropriately respond to any potential violations of the law, the Code of Conduct, and other Company policies and procedures.
Highlights of our Compliance Program include the following:
•Comprehensive internal policies over such areas as anti-bribery; travel, entertainment, gifts and charitable donations to government officials and other parties; payments to commercial sales representatives; and, the use of non-U.S. police or military organizations for security purposes. In addition, there are policies and procedures to address customs requirements, visa processing risks, export and re-export controls, economic sanctions, anti-money laundering and anti-boycott laws.
•Global and independent structure of Chief Compliance Officer and other compliance professionals providing compliance advice, customized training and governance, as well as investigating allegations across all regions and countries where we do business.
•Comprehensive employee compliance training program that combines instructor-led and web-based training modules tailored to the key risks that employees face on an ongoing basis.
•Due diligence and monitoring procedures for third parties who conduct business on our behalf, including channel partners (sales representatives, distributors, resellers), and administrative service providers.
•Due diligence procedures for acquisition activities.
•Specifically tailored compliance risk assessments and audits focused on country and third party risk.
•Compliance Review Board comprised of senior officers of the Company that meets quarterly to monitor effectiveness of the Compliance Program, as well as segment compliance review boards that meet quarterly.
•Technology to monitor and report on compliance matters, including an internal investigations management system, a conflict of interest reporting and management system, a web-based anti-boycott reporting tool, global trade management systems and comprehensive watch list screening.
•Data privacy compliance policies and procedures to ensure compliance with applicable data privacy requirements.
•A compliance program designed to create an “Open Reporting Environment” where employees are encouraged to report any ethics or compliance matter without fear of retaliation, including a global network of trained employee ombudspersons, and a worldwide, 24-hour business helpline operated by a third party and available in approximately 200 languages.
•Centralized finance organization with company-wide policies.
•Anti-corruption audits of high-risk countries, as well as risk-based compliance audits of third parties.
•We have region-specific processes and procedures for management of HR related issues, including pre-hire screening of employees; a process to screen existing employees prior to promotion into select roles where they may be exposed to finance and/or corruption-related risks; and implementation of a global new hire training module which includes compliance training for all employees.
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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Our objective in financing our business is to maintain sufficient liquidity, adequate financial resources, and financial flexibility in order to fund the requirements of our business. We continue to maintain solid financial strength and liquidity. At December 31, 2022, we had cash and cash equivalents of $2.5 billion compared to $3.8 billion at December 31, 2021.
In the U.S. we held cash and cash equivalents of approximately $0.6 billion and $1.6 billion and outside the U.S. of approximately $1.9 billion and $2.2 billion as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. A substantial portion of the cash held outside the U.S. at December 31, 2022 has been reinvested in active non-U.S. business operations. If we decide at a later date to repatriate those funds to the U.S., we may incur other additional taxes that would not be significant to the total tax provision.
We have a $3 billion committed unsecured revolving credit facility ("the Credit Agreement") with commercial banks maturing in December 2024. The Credit Agreement contains certain customary representations and warranties, certain customary affirmative covenants and certain customary negative covenants. Upon the occurrence of certain events of default, our obligations under the Credit Agreement may be accelerated. Such events of default include payment defaults to lenders under the Credit Agreement and other customary defaults. No such events of default have occurred. In addition, we have a commercial paper program with authorization up to $3 billion under which we may issue from time to time commercial paper with maturities of no more than 397 days. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, there were no borrowings under the Credit Agreement or the commercial paper program.
Certain Senior Notes contain covenants that restrict our ability to take certain actions. See "Note 9. Borrowings" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report for further details. At December 31, 2022, we were in compliance with all debt covenants. Our next debt maturity is December 2023.
We continuously review our liquidity and capital resources. If market conditions were to change, for instance due to the uncertainty created by geopolitical events, a global pandemic or a significant decline in oil and gas prices, and our revenue was reduced significantly or operating costs were to increase significantly, our cash flows and liquidity could be negatively impacted. Additionally, it could cause the rating agencies to lower our credit ratings. There are no ratings triggers that would accelerate the maturity of any borrowings under our committed credit facility; however, a downgrade in our credit ratings could increase the cost of borrowings under the credit facility and could also limit or preclude our ability to issue commercial paper. Should this occur, we could seek alternative sources of funding, including borrowing under the credit facility.
During the year ended December 31, 2022, we dispersed cash to fund a variety of activities including certain working capital needs, capital expenditures, distributions to Members, and repurchases of our Units.
Cash flows provided by (used in) each type of activity were as follows for the years ended December 31:
|Operating activities||$||1,895 ||$||2,370 ||$||1,301 |
|Financing activities||(1,592)||(2,142)||225 |
Cash flows from operating activities generated cash of $1,895 million, $2,370 million, and $1,301 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively.
Our largest source of operating cash is payments from customers, of which the largest component is collecting cash related to our sales of products and services including advance payments or progress collections for work to be performed. The primary use of operating cash is to pay our suppliers, employees, tax authorities and others for a wide range of goods and services.
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In 2022, cash generated from operating activities were primarily driven by net losses adjusted for certain noncash items (including depreciation, amortization, loss on business dispositions, stock based compensation cost, loss on equity securities, and the impairment of certain assets). Working capital, which includes contract and other deferred assets, generated cash of $171 million in 2022 primarily due to strong progress collections on equipment contracts and an increase in accounts payable, partially offset by the increase in receivables and inventory as we build for revenue growth.
In 2021, working capital generated $515 million of cash primarily due to accounts payable, inventories and contract and other deferred assets partially offset by accounts receivable and progress collections, as we continued to make progress on improving our working capital processes. Restructuring and GE separation related payments were $175 million on a net basis in 2021 and included the proceeds from the disposal of certain facilities, which are reflected below in investing activities.
In 2020, working capital generated $212 million of cash primarily due to receivables and positive progress collections partially offset by accounts payable. Restructuring and GE separation related payments were $670 million in 2020.
Cash flows from investing activities used cash of $1,564 million, $463 million, and $618 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively.
Our principal recurring investing activity is the funding of capital expenditures to ensure that we have the appropriate levels and types of machinery and equipment in place to generate revenue from operations. Expenditures for capital assets totaled $989 million, $856 million, and $974 million for 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively, partially offset by cash flows from the sale of property, plant and equipment of $217 million, $315 million, and $187 million in 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. Proceeds from the disposal of assets are primarily related to equipment that was lost-in-hole, predominantly in OFSE, and to property, machinery and equipment no longer used in operations that was sold throughout the period.
In 2022, we paid $845 million for both acquisitions and investments in business interests. We completed several acquisitions during 2022 including BRUSH Power Generation, Quest Integrity, AccessESP, and Mosaic Materials. The total cash paid, net of cash acquired, for acquisitions was $767 million, and we used cash on hand to fund these transactions.
In 2021, we contributed our SDS business to create a joint venture and received as consideration 50% of the shares of the joint venture, cash of $70 million, and a promissory note of $80 million. In 2020, we received proceeds of $187 million primarily from the sale of our rod lift systems and our surface pressure control flow businesses.
In 2021, we invested $266 million to add capabilities to our new energy and industrial asset management offerings through the acquisition of business interests in Augury, Ekona Power, Electrochaea, and the acquisition of ARMS Reliability, among others. Also in 2021, we sold approximately 2.2 million C3 AI Shares and received proceeds of $145 million, which is included in other investing activities.
Cash flows from financing activities used cash of $1,592 million, $2,142 million, and generated cash of $225 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively.
We had net repayments of short-term debt of $28 million, $41 million, and $204 million and long-term debt of nil, $1,313 million, and $42 million in 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. The repayment of long-term debt in 2021 was primarily driven by the early repayment of our 2.773% Senior Notes due December 2022 ("the 2022 Notes") with a principal amount of $1,250 million. In addition, a charge of $28 million related to the early redemption was recorded within "Interest expense, net" in our consolidated statements of income (loss).
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In 2022, we increased our quarterly distribution by one cent to $0.19 per Unit during the fourth quarter. During 2022, 2021, and 2020, we made distributions to our Members of $743 million, $748 million, and $744 million, respectively.
In 2022, Baker Hughes' Board of Directors authorized an increase to our repurchase program of $2 billion of additional Units, increasing our existing repurchase authorization of $2 billion to $4 billion. During 2022, we repurchased and canceled 29.7 million Units for a total of $828 million.
In 2021, we received proceeds from the issuance of $650 million aggregate principal amount of 1.231% Senior Notes due December 2023 and $600 million aggregate principal amount of 2.061% Senior Notes due December 2026. In 2020, we had proceeds from the issuance of $500 million aggregate principal amount of 4.486% Senior Notes due May 2030.
In 2021, we repaid $832 million (£600 million) of commercial paper originally issued in 2020 ($737 million at date of issuance) under the COVID Corporate Financing Facility established by the Bank of England.
During 2021, we repurchased and canceled 17.6 million Units for a total of $434 million.
We believe cash on hand, cash flows from operating activities, the available revolving credit facility, access to both our commercial paper program or our uncommitted lines of credit, and availability under our existing shelf registrations of debt will provide us with sufficient capital resources and liquidity in the short-term and long-term to manage our working capital needs, meet contractual obligations, fund capital expenditures and distributions, repay debt, repurchase our Units, and support the development of our short-term and long-term operating strategies. When necessary, we issue commercial paper or other short-term debt to fund cash needs in the U.S. in excess of the cash generated in the U.S.
Our capital expenditures can be adjusted and managed by us to match market demand and activity levels. Based on current market conditions, capital expenditures in 2023 will be made at a rate that we estimate would equal up to 5% of annual revenue. The expenditures are expected to be used primarily for normal, recurring items necessary to support our business. We also anticipate making income tax payments in the range of $500 million to $550 million in 2023.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
Our material cash commitments from known contractual and other obligations consist primarily of obligations for long-term debt and related interest, leases for property and equipment, and purchase obligations as part of normal operations. Certain amounts included in our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2022 are based on our estimates and assumptions about these obligations, including their duration, anticipated actions by third parties and other factors.
See “Note 9. Borrowings” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein for information regarding scheduled maturities of our long-term debt. See “Note 8. Leases” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein for information regarding scheduled maturities of our operating leases.
As of December 31, 2022, we had expected cash payments for estimated interest on our long-term debt and finance lease obligations of $267 million payable within the next twelve months and $2,936 million payable thereafter.
As of December 31, 2022, we had purchase obligations of $1,584 million payable within the next twelve months and $907 million payable thereafter. Our purchase obligations include expenditures for capital assets for 2023 as well as agreements to purchase goods or services or licenses that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, including: fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction.
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Due to the uncertainty with respect to the timing of potential future cash outflows associated with our uncertain tax positions, we are unable to make reasonable estimates of the period of cash settlement, if any, to the respective taxing authorities. Therefore, $630 million in uncertain tax positions, including interest and penalties, have been excluded from the contractual obligations discussed above. See "Note 11. Income Taxes" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein for further information.
Other factors affecting liquidity
Customer receivables: In line with industry practice, we may bill our customers for services provided in arrears dependent upon contractual terms. In a challenging economic environment, we may experience delays in the payment of our invoices due to customers' lower cash flow from operations or their more limited access to credit markets. While historically there have not been material non-payment events, we attempt to mitigate this risk through working with our customers to restructure their debts. A customer's failure or delay in payment could have a material adverse effect on our short-term liquidity and results from operations. As of December 31, 2022, 15% of our gross customer receivables were from customers in the U.S. and 11% were from customers in Mexico. As of December 31, 2021, 13% of our gross customer receivables were from customers in the U.S and 12% were from customers in Mexico.
International operations: Our cash that is held outside the U.S. is 77% of the total cash balance as of December 31, 2022. We may not be able to use this cash quickly and efficiently due to exchange or cash controls that could make it challenging. As a result, our cash balance may not represent our ability to quickly and efficiently use this cash.
Supply chain finance programs: Under supply chain finance programs, administered by a third party, our suppliers are given the opportunity to sell receivables from us to participating financial institutions at their sole discretion at a rate that leverages our credit rating and thus might be more beneficial to our suppliers. Our responsibility is limited to making payment on the terms originally negotiated with our supplier, regardless of whether the supplier sells its receivable to a financial institution. The range of payment terms we negotiate with our suppliers is consistent, irrespective of whether a supplier participates in the program. These liabilities continue to be presented as accounts payable in our consolidated statements of financial position and reflected as cash flow from operating activities when settled. We do not believe that changes in the availability of supply chain financing programs would have a material impact on our liquidity.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
An accounting policy is deemed to be critical if the nature of the estimate or assumption it incorporates is subject to a material level of judgment related to matters that are highly uncertain and changes in those estimates and assumptions are reasonably likely to materially impact our consolidated financial statements. These estimates reflect our best judgment about current, and for some estimates, future, economic and market conditions and their potential effects based on information available as of the date of these financial statements. If these conditions change from those expected, it is reasonably possible that the judgments and estimates described below could change, which may result in future impairments of goodwill, or the establishment of valuation allowances on deferred tax assets and increased tax liabilities, among other effects. Also, see "Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein, which discusses our most significant accounting policies.
The Audit Committee of Baker Hughes' Board of Directors has reviewed our critical accounting estimates and the disclosure presented below. During the past three fiscal years, we have not made any material changes in the methodology used to establish the critical accounting estimates, and we believe that the following are the critical accounting estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2022. There are other items within our consolidated financial statements that require estimation and judgment, but they are not deemed critical as defined above.
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Revenue Recognition on Long-Term Product Services Agreements
We have long-term service agreements with our customers within our IET segment. These agreements typically require us to maintain assets sold to the customer over a defined contract term. These agreements have average contract terms of greater than 10 years. From time to time, these contract terms may be extended through contract modifications or amendments, which may result in revisions to future billing and cost estimates. Revenue recognition on long-term product services agreements requires estimates of both customer payments and the costs to perform required maintenance services over the contract term. We recognize revenue on an over time basis using input method to measure our progress toward completion at the estimated margin rate of the contract.
To develop our billings estimates, we consider the number of billable events that will occur based on estimated utilization of the asset under contract, over the life of the contract term. This estimated utilization will consider both historical and market conditions, asset retirements and new product introductions, if applicable.
To develop our cost estimates, we consider the timing and extent of maintenance and overhaul events, including the amount and cost of labor, spare parts and other resources required to perform the services. In developing our cost estimates, we utilize a combination of our historical cost experience and expected cost improvements. Cost improvements are only included in future cost estimates after savings have been observed in actual results or proven effective through an extensive regulatory or engineering approval process.
We routinely review the estimates used in our product services agreements and regularly revise them to adjust for changes. These revisions are based on objectively verifiable information that is available at the time of the review. We gain insight into expected future utilization and cost trends, as well as credit risk, through our knowledge of the equipment installed and the close interaction with our customers through supplying critical services and parts over extended periods.
Revisions to cost or billing estimates may affect a product services agreement’s total estimated profitability resulting in an adjustment of earnings; such adjustments generated earnings of $20 million, $14 million and $17 million for the three years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We provide for probable losses when they become evident. Cash billings collected on these contracts were approximately $0.7 billion and $0.6 billion during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Our contracts (on average) are approximately 18% complete based on costs incurred to date and our estimate of future costs.
Revenue Recognition on Sale of Customized Equipment
We recognize revenue on agreements for sales of equipment manufactured to unique customer specifications including long-term construction projects, on an over time basis utilizing cost inputs as the measurement criteria in assessing the progress toward completion. Our estimation of the total costs required to fulfill our promise to a customer is generally based on our history of manufacturing similar assets for customers. This estimation of cost is critical to our revenue recognition process and is updated routinely to reflect changes in quantity or cost of the inputs. In certain projects, the underlying technology or promise to the customer is unique to what we have historically promised and reliably estimating the total cost to fulfill the promise to the customer requires a significant level of judgment. We provide for potential losses on any of these agreements when it is probable that we will incur the loss. The total revenue recognized for the sale of equipment on an over time basis during the twelve months ended December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020 was $4.2 billion, $4.8 billion, and $4.6 billion, respectively.
Goodwill and Other Identified Intangible Assets
We perform an annual impairment test of goodwill on a qualitative or quantitative basis for each of our reporting units as of July 1, or more frequently when circumstances indicate an impairment may exist at the reporting unit level. When performing the annual impairment test we have the option of first performing a qualitative assessment to determine the existence of events and circumstances that would lead to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If such a conclusion is reached, we would then be required to perform a quantitative impairment assessment of goodwill. A quantitative assessment for the determination of impairment is made by comparing the carrying amount of each reporting unit with its fair value. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit is judgmental in nature and involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions and typically requires analysis of discounted cash flows and other market information, such as
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trading multiples, and comparable transactions. Cash flow analysis requires judgment regarding many factors, such as management’s projections of future cash flows, weighted-average cost of capital, and long-term growth rates. Market information requires judgmental selection of relevant market comparables. We assess the valuation methodology based upon the relevance and availability of the data at the time the valuation is performed. Our estimates are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable but which are inherently uncertain, and actual results may differ from those assumed in our analysis. The determination of whether goodwill is impaired involves a significant level of judgment in these assumptions, and changes in our forecasts, business strategy, government regulations, or economic or market conditions could significantly impact these judgments, potentially decreasing the fair value of one or more reporting units. Any resulting impairment charges could have a material impact on our results of operations.
Our effective tax rate is based on our income, statutory tax rates, and differences between tax laws and U.S. GAAP in various jurisdictions. Tax laws are complex and subject to different interpretations by the taxpayer and respective governmental taxing authorities. Our rate may be further impacted by the repatriation of foreign earnings that are considered indefinitely reinvested to the extent the repatriation would result in additional taxes such as withholding and income taxes. Indefinite reinvestment is determined by management’s judgment and intentions concerning the future operations of the Company. In cases where repatriation would otherwise incur significant withholding or income taxes, these foreign earnings have been indefinitely reinvested in active non-U.S. business operations. Computation of the potential deferred tax liability associated with these undistributed earnings and any other basis differences is not practicable.
Deferred income tax assets represent amounts available to reduce income taxes payable in future years. We evaluate the recoverability of these future tax deductions and credits by assessing the adequacy of future taxable income from all sources, including reversal of taxable temporary differences, forecasted operating earnings and available tax planning strategies. These sources of income rely heavily on estimates. We use our historical experience and short and long range business forecasts to provide insight. We record a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Our tax filings routinely are subject to audit by the tax authorities in the jurisdictions where we conduct business. These audits may result in assessments of additional taxes that are resolved with the tax authorities or through the courts. We have provided for the amounts we believe will ultimately result from these proceedings, but settlements of issues raised in these audits may affect our tax rate. We have $461 million of gross unrecognized tax benefits, excluding interest and penalties, at December 31, 2022. We are not able to reasonably estimate in which future periods these amounts ultimately will be settled.
Allowance for Credit Losses
The estimation of anticipated credit losses that may be incurred as we work through the invoice collection process with our customers requires us to make judgments and estimates regarding our customers' ability to pay amounts due to us. We monitor our customers' payment history and current credit worthiness to determine that collectability is reasonably assured. We also consider the overall business climate in which our customers operate. For accounts receivable, a loss allowance matrix is utilized to measure lifetime expected credit losses. The matrix contemplates historical credit losses by age of receivables, adjusted for any forward-looking information and management expectations. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the allowance for credit losses totaled $341 million and $400 million of total gross accounts receivable, respectively. We believe that our allowance for credit losses is adequate to cover the anticipated credit losses under current conditions; however, uncertainties regarding changes in the financial condition of our customers, either adverse or positive, could impact the amount and timing of any additional credit losses that may be required.
Inventory is a significant component of current assets and is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. This requires us to record provisions and maintain reserves for excess, slow moving, and obsolete inventory. To determine these reserve amounts, we regularly review inventory quantities on hand and compare them to estimates of future product demand, market conditions, production requirements, and technological developments. These
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estimates and forecasts inherently include uncertainties and require us to make judgments regarding potential future outcomes. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, inventory reserves totaled $396 million and $374 million of gross inventory, respectively. We believe that our reserves are adequate to properly value potential excess, slow moving, and obsolete inventory under current conditions. Significant or unanticipated changes to our estimates and forecasts could impact the amount and timing of any additional provisions for excess, slow moving or obsolete inventory that may be required.
NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS TO BE ADOPTED
See "Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein for further discussion of accounting standards to be adopted.
RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
See "Note 16. Related Party Transactions" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein for further discussion of related party transactions.
This Form 10-K, including MD&A and certain statements in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (each a "forward-looking statement"). Forward-looking statements concern future circumstances and results and other statements that are not historical facts and are sometimes identified by the words "may," "will," "should," "potential," "intend," "expect," "endeavor," "seek," "anticipate," "estimate," "overestimate," "underestimate," "believe," "could," "project," "predict," "continue," "target" or other similar words or expressions. Forward-looking statements are based upon current plans, estimates and expectations that are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those indicated or anticipated by such forward-looking statements. The inclusion of such statements should not be regarded as a representation that such plans, estimates or expectations will be achieved. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from such plans, estimates or expectations include, among others, the risk factors in the "Risk Factors" section of Part 1 of Item 1A of this Form 10-K and those set forth from time-to-time in other filings by the Company with the SEC. These documents are available through our website or through the SEC's Electronic Data Gathering and Analysis Retrieval ("EDGAR") system at http://www.sec.gov.
In light of such risks and uncertainties, we caution you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this annual report, or if earlier, as of the date they were made. We do not intend to, and disclaim any obligation to, update or revise any forward-looking statements unless required by securities law.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to certain market risks that are inherent in our financial instruments and arise from changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates. We may enter into derivative financial instrument transactions to manage or reduce market risk, but do not enter into derivative financial instrument transactions for speculative purposes. A discussion of our primary market risk exposure in financial instruments is presented below.
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INTEREST RATE RISK
All of our long-term debt is comprised of fixed rate instruments. We are subject to interest rate risk on our debt and investment portfolio. As of December 31, 2022, we had interest rate swaps with a notional amount of $500 million that converted a portion of our $1,350 million aggregate principal amount of 3.337% fixed rate Senior Notes due 2027 into a floating rate instrument with an interest rate based on a LIBOR index as a hedge of its exposure to changes in fair value that are attributable to interest rate risk. The interest rate swaps are designated and each qualify as a fair value hedging instrument. The interest rate swaps are considered to be effective at achieving offsetting changes in the fair value of the hedged liability, and no ineffectiveness is recognized. The mark-to-market of this fair value hedge was recorded as gain or loss in interest expense and was equally offset by the gain or loss of the underlying debt instrument, which also was recorded in interest expense.
The following table sets forth our fixed rate long-term debt, excluding finance leases, and the related weighted average interest rates by expected maturity dates.
|As of December 31, 2022|
Long-term debt (1)
|$||650 ||$||107 ||$||— ||$||600 ||$||1,350 ||$||3,756 ||$||6,463 |
Weighted average interest rates
|1.46 ||%||4.07 ||%||— ||%||2.36 ||%||3.75 ||%||4.06 ||%||3.59 ||%|
(1)Fair market value of our fixed rate long-term debt, excluding finance leases, was $5.8 billion at December 31, 2022.
(2)Amounts represent the principal value of our long-term debt outstanding and related weighted average interest rates at the end of the respective period.
FOREIGN CURRENCY EXCHANGE RISK
We conduct our operations around the world in a number of different currencies, and we are exposed to market risks resulting from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. Many of our significant foreign subsidiaries have designated the local currency as their functional currency. As such, future earnings are subject to change due to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates when transactions are denominated in currencies other than our functional currencies.
Additionally, we buy, manufacture and sell components and products across global markets. These activities expose us to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices and interest rates which can adversely affect revenue earned and costs of our operating businesses. When the currency in which equipment is sold differs from the primary currency of the legal entity and the exchange rate fluctuates, it will affect the revenue earned on the sale. These sales and purchase transactions also create receivables and payables denominated in foreign currencies and exposure to foreign currency gains and losses based on changes in exchange rates. Changes in the price of raw materials used in manufacturing can affect the cost of manufacturing. We use derivatives to mitigate or eliminate these exposures, where appropriate.
We use cash flow hedging primarily to reduce or eliminate the effects of foreign currency exchange rate changes on purchase and sale contracts. Accordingly, most derivative activity in this category consists of currency exchange contracts. We had outstanding foreign currency forward contracts with notional amounts aggregating $3 billion and $3.3 billion to hedge exposure to currency fluctuations in various foreign currencies at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The notional amount of these derivative instruments do not generally represent cash amounts exchanged by us and the counterparties, but rather the nominal amount upon which changes in the value of the derivatives are measured.
As of December 31, 2022, the Company estimates that a 1% appreciation or depreciation in the U.S. dollar would result in an impact of less than $10 million to our pre-tax earnings, however, the Company is generally able to mitigate its foreign exchange exposure, where there are liquid financial markets, through use of foreign currency derivative transactions. Also, see "Note 13. Financial Instruments" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 herein, which has additional details on our strategy.
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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Management's Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over our financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f). Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the 2013 framework in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on our assessment, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2022. This conclusion is based on the recognition that there are inherent limitations in all systems of internal control. Because of the inherent limitations of internal control over financial reporting, including the possibility of collusion or improper management override of controls, material misstatements due to error or fraud may not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
KPMG LLP, the Company's independent registered public accounting firm, has issued an attestation report on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
/s/ LORENZO SIMONELLI
Chief Executive Officer
/s/ NANCY BUESE
Chief Financial Officer
/s/ KURT CAMILLERI
Senior Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer
February 14, 2023
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Members
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC:
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of financial position of Baker Hughes Holdings LLC and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of income (loss), comprehensive income (loss), changes in members' equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2022, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2022, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, and our report dated February 14, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Revenue recognition on certain agreements for sales of equipment manufactured to unique customer specifications
As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company enters into agreements for sales of equipment manufactured to unique customer specifications on an over time basis. Revenue from these types of contracts is recognized to the extent of progress towards completion measured by actual costs incurred relative to total expected costs. The Company provides for potential losses on these types of contracts when it is probable that a loss will be incurred.
We identified revenue recognition for certain contracts from the sales of equipment manufactured to unique customer specifications as a critical audit matter. Complex auditor judgment was required in evaluating the Company's long-term estimates of the expected costs to be incurred in order to complete these contracts.
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC 2022 Form 10-K | 46
The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls related to the Company’s revenue recognition process for sales of equipment manufactured to unique customer specifications. This included controls pertaining to the Company's estimation of costs expected to be incurred to complete contracts for sales of equipment manufactured to unique customer specifications. We evaluated the Company's ability to accurately estimate costs expected to be incurred to complete the contracts for sales of equipment manufactured to unique customer specifications. We evaluated the estimated costs expected to be incurred to complete the equipment manufactured to unique customer specifications for the contracts by:
–questioning the Company's finance and project managers regarding progress to date based on the latest project reports and the costs expected to still be incurred until completion;
–observing project review meetings performed by the Company or inspecting relevant minutes of those meetings to identify changes in the estimated costs expected to be incurred to complete the contract and related contract margins;
–assessing the remaining estimated costs expected to be incurred by expenditure category by comparing to the actual costs incurred during the current year for the selected project; and
–investigating changes to the contract margin when compared to the prior year's estimated contract margin.
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2017.
/s/ KPMG LLP
February 14, 2023
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC 2022 Form 10-K | 47
REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Members
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC:
Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Baker Hughes Holdings LLC and subsidiaries' (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated statements of financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of income (loss), comprehensive income (loss), changes in members' equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2022, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements), and our report dated February 14, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ KPMG LLP
February 14, 2023
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC 2022 Form 10-K | 48
BAKER HUGHES HOLDINGS LLC
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (LOSS)
|Year Ended December 31,|
|(In millions, except per unit amounts)||2022||2021||2020|
|Sales of goods||$||12,236 ||$||12,248 ||$||12,846 |
|Sales of services||8,920 ||8,254 ||7,859 |
|Total revenue||21,156 ||20,502 ||20,705 |
|Costs and expenses:|
|Cost of goods sold||10,445 ||10,458 ||11,383 |
|Cost of services sold||6,311 ||5,995 ||6,123 |
|Selling, general and administrative||2,510 ||2,470 ||2,404 |
|Goodwill impairment||— ||— ||14,717 |
|Restructuring, impairment and other||682 ||209 ||1,866 |
|Separation related||23 ||60 ||134 |
|Total costs and expenses||19,971 ||19,192 ||36,627 |
|Operating income (loss)||1,185 ||1,310 ||(15,922)|
|Other non-operating income (loss), net||(881)||(583)||1,040 |
|Interest expense, net||(252)||(299)||(264)|
|Income (loss) before income taxes||52 ||428 ||(15,146)|
|Provision for income taxes||(554)||(772)||(650)|
|Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests||24 ||28 ||29 |
|Net loss attributable to Baker Hughes Holdings LLC||$||(526)||$||(372)||$||(15,825)|
|Cash distribution per common unit||$||0.73 ||$||0.72 ||$||0.72 |
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC 2022 Form 10-K | 49
BAKER HUGHES HOLDINGS LLC
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
|Year Ended December 31,|
|Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests||24 ||28 ||29 |
|Net loss attributable to Baker Hughes Holdings LLC||(526)||(372)||(15,825)|
|Other comprehensive income (loss):|
|— ||— ||(2)|
Foreign currency translation adjustments
Cash flow hedges
|Other comprehensive income (loss)||(281)||(151)||44 |
|Less: Other comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interests||(1)||(2)||(3)|
|Other comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Baker Hughes Holdings LLC||(280)||(149)||47 |
|Less: Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interests||23 ||26 ||26 |
|Comprehensive loss attributable to Baker Hughes Holdings LLC||$||(806)||$||(521)||$||(15,778)|
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC 2022 Form 10-K | 50
BAKER HUGHES HOLDINGS LLC
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL POSITION
| ||December 31,|
|Cash and cash equivalents||$||2,485 ||$||3,843 |
|Current receivables, net||5,974 ||5,718 |
|Inventories, net||4,587 ||3,979 |
|All other current assets||1,559 ||1,582 |
|Total current assets||14,605 ||15,122 |
|Property, plant and equipment, less accumulated depreciation||4,538 ||4,877 |
|Goodwill||5,691 ||5,721 |
|Other intangible assets, net||4,180 ||4,131 |
|Contract and other deferred assets||1,503 ||1,598 |
|All other assets||2,998 ||3,102 |
|Deferred income taxes||657 ||735 |
|Total assets||$||34,172 ||$||35,286 |
|LIABILITIES AND EQUITY|
|Accounts payable||$||4,298 ||$||3,745 |
|Short-term debt and current portion of long-term debt||677 ||40 |
|Progress collections and deferred income||3,822 ||3,232 |
|All other current liabilities||2,235 ||2,163 |
|Total current liabilities||11,032 ||9,180 |
|Long-term debt||5,980 ||6,687 |
|Deferred income taxes||135 ||73 |
|Liabilities for pensions and other postretirement benefits||960 ||1,110 |
|All other liabilities||1,406 ||1,510 |
Members' capital (common units 1,006 and 1,026 issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively
|34,336 ||35,589 |
|Accumulated other comprehensive loss||(2,971)||(2,691)|
|Baker Hughes Holdings LLC equity||14,528 ||16,587 |
|Noncontrolling interests||131 ||139 |
|Total equity||14,659 ||16,726 |
|Total liabilities and equity||$||34,172 ||$||35,286 |
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC 2022 Form 10-K | 51
BAKER HUGHES HOLDINGS LLC
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN MEMBERS' EQUITY
|(In millions, except per unit amounts)||Members' Capital||Retained Earnings (Loss)||Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss||Non-controlling Interests||Total|
|Balance at December 31, 2019||$||36,998 ||$||(110)||$||(2,589)||$||115 ||$||34,414 |
|Comprehensive income (loss):|
|Net income (loss)||(15,825)||29 ||(15,796)|
|Other comprehensive income (loss)||47 ||(3)||44 |
Regular cash distribution to Members ($0.72 per unit)
|Baker Hughes stock-based compensation cost||210 ||210 |
|Other||48 ||(4)||(9)||35 |
|Balance at December 31, 2020||36,512 ||(15,939)||(2,542)||132 ||18,163 |
|Comprehensive income (loss):|
|Net income (loss)||(372)||28 ||(344)|
|Other comprehensive loss||(149)||(2)||(151)|
Regular cash distribution to Members ($0.72 per unit)
|Repurchase and cancellation of common units||(434)|| || ||(434)|
|Baker Hughes stock-based compensation cost||205 ||205 |
|Other||54 || ||(19)||35 |
|Balance at December 31, 2021||35,589 ||(16,311)||(2,691)||139 ||16,726 |
|Comprehensive income (loss):|
|Net income (loss)|| ||(526)|| ||24 ||(502)|
|Other comprehensive loss|| || ||(280)||(1)||(281)|
Regular cash distribution to Members ($0.73 per unit)
|(743)|| || || ||(743)|
|Repurchase and cancellation of common units||(828)|| || || ||(828)|
|Baker Hughes stock-based compensation cost||207 || || || ||207 |
|Other||111 || || ||(31)||80 |
|Balance at December 31, 2022||$||34,336 ||$||(16,837)||$||(2,971)||$||131 ||$||14,659 |
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Baker Hughes Holdings LLC 2022 Form 10-K | 52
BAKER HUGHES HOLDINGS LLC
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS